# UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus ! Combined Geo-Scientist 2021-2022

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**Note-**

Paper-I in General

Studies of Stage-I is common for all streams and its standard will be such as

may be expected of a science graduate. Paper-II of Stage-I (Stream specific)

and 3 compulsory papers of Stage-II each on Geology, Geophysics, Chemistry and

Hydrogeology subjects will be approximately of the M.Sc. degree standard of an

Indian University and questions will generally be set to test the candidate’s

grasp of the fundamentals in each subject.

*There will be no practicalexamination in any of the subjects*

#### Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist

(Preliminary) Examination

Stage-I (Objective Type)

Paper-I: General Studies

(Common for all streams)

**Current eventsof national and international importance.·** History of India and Indian National Movement.· Indian and World Geography -Physical, Social,

Economic Geography of India and the World.· Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution,

Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy,· Rights Issues, etc. Economic and Social Development – Sustainable

Development, Poverty, Inclusion,· Demographics, Social Sector

initiatives, etc. General issues on

Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not· require subject specialisation General Science·

#### Stage-I (Objective Type)

Paper-II :

Geology/Hydrogeology

1. Physical Geology Principle of uniformitarianism;

origin, differentiation and internal structure of the Earth; origin of

atmosphere; earthquakes and volcanoes; continental drift, sea-floor spreading,

isostasy, orogeny and plate tectonics; geological action of rivers, wind,

glaciers, waves; erosional and depositional landforms; weathering processes and

products. 15 2. Structural Geology Stress, strain and rheological

properties of rocks; planar and linear structures; classification of folds and

faults; Mohr’s circle and criteria for failure of rocks; ductile and brittle

shear in rocks; study of toposheets, V-rules and outcrop patterns;

stereographic projections of structural elements. 3. Mineralogy Elements of

symmetry, notations and indices; Bravais lattices; chemical classification of

minerals; isomorphism, polymorphism, solid solution and exsolution; silicate

structures; physical and optical properties of common rock forming minerals-

olivine, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar and quartz. 4. Igneous

Petrology Magma types and their evolution; IUGS classification of igneous

rocks; forms, structures and textures of igneous rocks; applications of binary

and ternary phase diagrams in petrogenesis; magmatic differentiation and assimilation;

petrogenesis of granites, basalts, komatiiites and alkaline rocks (carbonatite,

kimberlite, lamprophyre and nepheline syenite). 5. Metamorphic Petrology

Limits, types and controls of metamorphism; metamorphic structures- slate,

schist and gneiss; metamorphic textures- pre, syn and post tectonic

porphyroblasts; concept of metamorphic zone, isograd and facies; geothermal

gradients, facies series and plate tectonics. 6. Sedimentology Origin of

sediments; sedimentary textures, grain-size scale; primary sedimentary

structures; classification of sandstone and carbonate rocks; siliciclastic

depositional environments and sedimentary facies; diagenesis of carbonate

sediments. 7. Paleontology Fossils and processes of fossilization; concept of

species and binomial nomenclature; morphology and classification of

invertebrates (Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and

Cephalopods); evolution in Equidae and Hominidae; microfossils-Foraminifera,

Ostracoda; Gondwana flora. 8. Stratigraphy Law of superposition; stratigraphic

nomenclature- lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy;

Archaean cratonic nucleii of Peninsular India (Dharwar, Singhbhum, and Aravalli

cratons); Proterozoic mobile belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi

and Eastern Ghats); Purana sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan);

Phanerozoic stratigraphy of IndiaSpiti, Kashmir, Damodar valley, Kutch,

Trichinopoly, Siwaliks and Indo-Gangetic alluvium. 9. Economic Geology

Properties of mineral deposits- form, mineral assemblage, texture, rock-ore

association and relationship; magmatic, sedimentary, metamorphic, hydrothermal,

supergene and weatheringrelated processes of ore formation; processes of

formation of coal, and petroleum; distribution and geological characteristics

of major mineral and hydrocarbon deposits of India. 10. Hydrogeology

Groundwater occurrence and aquifer characteristics, porosity, permeability,

hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity; Darcy’s Law in homogenous and

heterogenous media; Bernoulli equation, Reynold’s number; composition of

groundwater; application of H and O isotopes in groundwater studies; artificial

recharge of groundwater.

#### Stage-I (Objective Type)

Paper-II : Geophysics

1.

Solid Earth Geophysics: Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar

system: origin, formation and characteristics of planets, Earth: shape and

rotation. Gravity and magnetic fields of earth. Geomagnetism, elements of

earth’s magnetism, Rock and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types and their

propagation characteristics, internal structure of earth, variation of physical

properties in the interior of earth. Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and their

causes, focal depth, epicenter, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of

earthquakes, Seismicity.

2. Mathematical Methods in Geophysics: Elements of

vector analysis, Vector algebra, Properties of scalars, vectors and tensors,

Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem.

Matrices, Eigen values and Eigen vectors and their applications in geophysics.

Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravity potential and gravity fields due to bodies

of different geometric shapes. Basic Forces of Nature and their strength:

Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak forces. Conservation Laws in

Physics: Energy, Linear and angular momentum. Rigid body motion and moment of

inertia. Basics of special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformation.

Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition of inversion and application

to Geophysics. Forward and Inverse problems. Probability theory, Random

variables, binomial, Poisson 16 and normal distributions. Linear algebra,

Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order. Partial

differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three

dimensions). Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions,

interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule,

solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method,

Introduction to finite difference and finite elements methods.

3.

Electromagnetism: Electrostatic and magneto-static fields, Coulomb’s law,

Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant, Lorentz force and their

applications. Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Gauss’s Theorem, Poisson’s

equation. Laplace’s equation: solution of Laplace’s equation in Cartesian

coordinates, use of Laplace’s equation in the solutions of geophysical and

electrostatic problems. Displacement current, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic

induction. Maxwell’s equations. Boundary conditions. Wave equation, plane

electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectric and conducting media,

electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials.

4. Geophysical Prospecting:

Elements of geophysical methods: Principles, data reduction and applications of

gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic and well logging methods.

Fundamentals of seismic methods: Fermat’s Principle, Snell’s Law, Energy

portioning, Reflection and transmission coefficients, Reflection and Refraction

from layered media. Signals and systems, sampling theorem, aliasing effect,

Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its application,

Laplace transforms, Convolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum,

Delta function, unit step function.

5. Remote Sensing and Thermodynamics:

Fundamentals of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, energy-

frequency-wavelength relationship, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law,

electromagnetic energy and its interactions in the atmosphere and with terrain

features. Planck’s Radiation Law. Laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic

potential.

6. Nuclear Physics and Radiometry: Basic nuclear properties: size,

shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, semi-empirical

mass formula; Fission and fusion. Principles of radioactivity, Alpha, beta and

gamma decays, Photoelectric and Compton Effect, Pair Production, radioactivity

decay law, radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Radiation Detectors: Ionization

chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter and Gamma ray spectrometer. Matter

Waves and wave particle duality, Electron spin, Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium

and alkali atoms.

####
**Stage-I (Objective Type) **

**Stage-I (Objective Type)**

**Paper-II : Chemistry**

- 1. Chemical

periodicity: Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves

for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals. Electronic configurations of

multi-electron atoms. Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in

physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic

configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristics of s, p, d

and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic

radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy

and electronegativity. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in

respect of s-, p- and d-block elements. General trends of variation of

electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic

properties, catenation and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and

redox chemistry in common oxidation states, properties and reactions of

important compounds such as hydrides, halides, oxides, oxy-acids, complex

chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements. - 2. Chemical bonding and

structure: Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their

limitations. Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation

and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy,

polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fajan’s rules. Defects in

solids. Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory,

hybridization. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.

Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts and

complex salts. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC

nomenclature of coordination compounds. Coordination numbers, Geometrical

isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes. - 3. Acids

and bases: Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases.

Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of

Ostwald’s dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product 17 of water,

pH-scale, effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values,

buffer action & buffer capacity; different types of buffers and Henderson’s

equation. - 4. Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis: Volumetric

Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar

solutions. Primary and secondary standard substances. General principles of

different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii) complexometric,

iv) Precipitation. Types of indicators – i) acid-base, ii) redox iii) metal-ion

indicators. - 5. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state: Kinetic theory of gases,

average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and absolute scale of

temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average,

root mean square and most probable velocities. Collision diameter; collision number

and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of

effusion. 6. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium: First law and

its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total

differentials and state functions. Free expansion, Joule-Thomson coefficient

and inversion temperature. Hess’ law. Applications of Second law of

thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz

equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of chemical

processes. - 7. Solutions of non-electrolytes: Colligative properties of

solutions, Raoult’s Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis and

osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point

of solvents. Solubility of gases in liquids and solid solutions. - 8.

Electrochemistry: Cell constant, specific conductance and molar conductance.

Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions, ion conductance and ionic

mobility. Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite dilution. Debye-Hückel

theory. Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric titrations.

Determination of transport number by moving boundary method. - 9. Basic organic

chemistry: Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation,

hybridisation, orbital pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N and C-O

system), bond polarization and bond polarizability. Reactive intermediates:

General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity of

carbocations, carbanions and free radicals. - 10. Stereochemistry: Configuration

and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry), optical isomerism of

compounds containing two to three stereogenic centres, R,S nomenclature,

geometrical isomerism in compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E,Z

naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman projection (ethane and substituted

ethane). - 11. Types of organic reactions: Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1,

SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic

substitutions. Effect of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving

group and reaction medium and competitive reactions. Elimination reactions: E1,

E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic eliminations.

Effect of substrate structure, attacking base, leaving group, reaction medium

and competitive reactions, orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff and Hoffman

rules. Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical addition

reactions at carbon-carbon double bonds. Electrophilic and nucleophilic

aromatic substitution: Electrophilic (halogenation, sulphonation, nitration,

Friedal-Crafts alkylation and acylation), nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1 and

aryne reactions). - 12. Molecular Rearrangements: Acid induced rearrangement and

Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighbouring group participation.

*****

**Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) **

**Examination For the post ofGeologist/Scientist ‘B’(Hydrogeology) **

#### Stage-II (Descriptive Type)

Geology :

Paper-I

Section A. Physical geology and remote sensing Evolution of Earth;

Earth’s internal structure; earthquakes and volcanoes; principles of geodesy,

isostasy; weathering- processes and products; geomorphic landforms formed by

action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves and groundwater; features of ocean

floor; continental shelf, slope and rise; 18 concepts of landscape

evolution; major geomorphic features of India- coastal, peninsular and extra

peninsular. Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic bands in remote sensing;

spectral signatures of soil, rock, water and vegetation; thermal, near

infra-red and microwave remote sensing; digital image processing; LANDSAT, IRS

and SPOT- characteristics and use; aerial photos- types, scale, parallax,

relief displacement; elements of image interpretation.

Section B. Structural

geology Principles of geological mapping; kinematic and dynamic analysis of

deformation; stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous

materials; measurement of strain in deformed rocks; structural analysis of

fold, cleavage, boudin, lineation, joint, and fault; stereographic projection

of linear and planar structures; superposed deformation; deformation at

microscale- dynamic and static recrystallisation, controls of strain rate and

temperature on development of microfabrics; brittle and ductile shear zones;

time relationship between crystallisation and deformation, calculation of

paleostress.

Section C. Sedimentology Classification of sedimentary rocks;

sedimentary textures-grain size, roundness, sphericity, shape and fabric;

quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and

sediment gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude

number, grain entrainment, Hjulstrom diagram, bed load and suspension load

transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation

structure; biogenic structures; principles and application of paleocurrent

analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone,

limestone, banded iron formation, mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis

and dolomitisation; sedimentary environments and facies-facies models for

fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow and deep marine environments;

carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in major tectonic settings;

principles of sequence stratigraphy-concepts, and factors controlling base

level changes, parasequence, clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and

sequence boundary.

Section D. Paleontology Fossil record and geological time

scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy; body- and

ichno-fossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacara Fauna; morphology

and time range of Graptolites, Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs,

Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids and Corals; evolutionary trends in

Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods; micropaleontology-

methods of preparation of microfossils, morphology of microfossil groups

(Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen and dinoflagellates; Gondwana

plant fossils and their significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution

in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae; applications of paleontological data in

stratigraphy, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology; mass extinctions.

Section E.

Stratigraphy Principles of stratigraphy-code of stratigraphic nomenclature of

India; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and

magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation; characteristics

of Archean granite-greenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution

of Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand);

Proterozoic mobile beltsEastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain,

Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt;

Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic

stratigraphy- Paleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch,

Narmada Valley and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal

basins, Garhwal-Shimla Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indian

stratigraphy.

#### Stage-II (Descriptive Type)

Geology : Paper-II

Section A.

Mineralogy Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; concept of unit cell and Bravais

lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination

polyhedra; crystal imperfections-defects, twinning and zoning; polymorphism,

pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of

minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of

minerals- double refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, sign of elongation,

interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and

optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet,

aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel

group.

Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology Chemical composition and

characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere; geochemical cycles;

meteorites-types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements;

fractionation of elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient

(compatible and incompatible elements), 19 Nernst-Berthelot partition

coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and

activity composition relation (Roult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace

elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation;

REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral stability. Half-life and decay

equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassium-argon, rubidiumstrontium,

uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of

samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry

of carbon, oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite

chemical dating.

Section C. Igneous petrology Viscosity, temperature and

pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic

rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of

igneous textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and

mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary

(albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopsideanorthite) and ternary

(diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsterite-anorthite and nephelinekalsilite-silica)

phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of

granites, basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, boninites,

anorthosites and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite,

kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and

large igneous provinces of India.

Section D. Metamorphic petrology Limits and

physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock

composition) of metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies

series, geothermal gradients and tectonics of orogenic belts; structures,

micro-structures and textures of regional and contact metamorphic rocks;

representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams);

equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy,

entropy, Gibb’s free energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing

the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase rule and mineralogical phase rule in

multi-component system; Claussius-Clapeyron equation and slopes of metamorphic

reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat

conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluid-rock

interactions; charnockite problem, formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive

metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic

setting.

Section E. Geodynamics Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities

in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp, Vs and density; seismic

and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and nonNewtonian

liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering

and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, sea floor spreading; gravity and

magnetic anomalies of ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and

their origin; plate tectonics- types of plate boundaries and their

inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust.

#### Stage-II

(Descriptive Type)

Geology : Paper-III

Section A. Economic geology Ore minerals

and industrial minerals; physical and optical properties of ore minerals; ore

textures and paragenesis; characteristics of mineral deposits- spatial and

temporal distribution, rock-ore association; syngenetic and epigenetic

deposits, forms of ore bodies, stratiform and strata-bound deposits; ore

forming processes- source and migration of ore constituents and ore fluid,

mechanism of ore deposition; magmatic and pegmatitic deposits (chromite,

Ti-magnetite, diamond, Cu-Ni sulphide, PGE, REE, muscovite, rare metals);

hydrothermal deposits (porphyry Cu-Mo, greisen SnW, skarn, VMS and SEDEX type

sulphide deposits, orogenic gold); sedimentary deposits (Fe, Mn, phosphorite,

placer); supergene deposits (Cu, Al, Ni and Fe); metamorphic and metamorphosed

deposits (Mn, graphite); fluid inclusions in ore mineral assemblage- physical

and chemical properties, microthermometry; stable isotope (S, C, O, H) in ore

genesis- geothermometry, source of ore constituents; global tectonics and

mineralisation.

Section B. Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics

Distribution of mineral deposits in Indian shield; geological characteristics

of important industrial mineral and ore deposits in India- chromite, diamond,

muscovite, Cu-Pb-Zn, Sn-W, Au, Fe-Mn, bauxite; minerals used in refractory,

fertilizer, ceramic, cement, glass, paint industries; minerals used as

abrasive, filler; building stones. Strategic, critical and essential minerals;

India’s status in mineral production; co-products and byproducts; consumption,

substitution and conservation of minerals; National Mineral Policy ; Mineral

Concession Rules; marine mineral resources and laws of the sea.

Section C.

Mineral exploration Stages of exploration; scope, objectives and methods of

prospecting, regional exploration and detailed exploration; geological,

geochemical and geobotanical methods; litho-, bio-, soil geochemical surveys,

mobility and dispersion of elements, geochemical anomalies; ore controls and

guides; pitting, trenching, drilling; sampling, assaying, ore reserve

estimation; categorization of ore reserves; geophysical methods- ground and

airborne surveys; gravity, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods of mineral

exploration.

Section D. Fuel geology and Engineering geology Coal and its

properties; proximate and ultimate analysis; different varieties and ranks of

coal; concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal;

origin of coal, coalification process; lithotypes, microlithotypes and maceral

groups of coal; mineral and organic matter in coal; lignite and coal deposits

of India; origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons;

characteristics of source and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and

mixed traps; geological, geochemical and geophysical methods of hydrocarbon

exploration; petroliferous basins of India; geological characteristics and

genesis of major types of U deposits and their distribution in India. .

Engineering properties of rocks; geological investigations in construction of

dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges, highways and coastal protection structures;

geologic considerations of construction materials.

Section E. Environmental

geology and Natural hazards Stefan-Boltzmann equation and planetary

temperature; cause and effects of global climate change; Earth’s radiation

budget; greenhouse gases and effect; examples of positive and negative feedback

mechanisms; biogeochemical cycle of carbon; geological investigations of

nuclear waste disposal sites; marginal marine environments- estuaries,

mangroves and lagoons; ozone hole depletion, ocean acidification, coral

bleaching, Milankovitch cycle, sea level rise, eutrophication and acid rain;

environmental impacts of urbanization, mining and hydropower projects; water

pollution, water logging and soil erosion; Himalayan glaciers; causes and

consequences of earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami, floods, landslides, coastal

erosion, droughts and desertification; application of remote sensing and

geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental management.

#### Stage-II (Descriptive

Type)

#### Hydrogeology

Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater Origin

of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept,

geologic formations as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater

table mapping and piezometric nests; porosity, void ratio, effective porosity

and representative porosity range; primary and secondary porosities;

groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins;

springs.

Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics Groundwater flow

concepts; Darcy’s Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water

flow rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic

conductivity and ranges in representative rocks; Bernoulli equation; determination

of hydraulic conductivity in field and laboratory; concept of groundwater flow

through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer thickness.

Section

C. Water wells and groundwater levels Unidirectional and radial flow to a well

(steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries; methods for

constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells,

pumping test, slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in

groundwater levels; stream flow and groundwater flows; groundwater level

fluctuations; land subsidence; impact of global climate change on groundwater.

Section D. Groundwater exploration Surface investigation of groundwater-

geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity and magnetic

methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity

logging, spontaneous potential logging, radiation logging.

Section E.

Groundwater quality and management Groundwater composition, units of

expression, mass-balance calculations; rock-water interaction (chemical

equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions and cation/anion exchanges), graphic

representation of chemical data; groundwater hardness, microorganisms in

groundwater; water quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues

due to urbanization; solid and liquid waste disposal and plume migration

models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater; concepts of

artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin

investigations and management practices.

#### For the post of Geophysicist/Scientist

‘B’(Geophysics)

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) Geophysics :

Paper-I PART-A

A1.

Solid Earth Geophysics: Introduction to Geophysics and its branches.

Solar system: origin, characteristics of planets, Earth: rotation and figure,

Geoid, Spheroid and topography. Plate tectonics and Geodynamic processes,

Thermal history and heat flow, Temperature variation in the earth, convection

currents. Gravity field of earth and Isostasy. Geomagnetism, elements of

earth’s magnetism: Internal and External fields and their causes,

Paleomagnetism, Polar wandering paths, Continental drift, Seafloor spreading

and its geophysical evidences. Elastic Waves, Body Waves and internal structure

of earth, variation of physical properties in the interior of earth,

Adam-Williamson’s Equation.

A2. Earthquake Seismology: Seismology, earthquakes,

focal depth, epicenter, great Indian earthquakes, Intensity and Magnitude

scales, Energy of earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, Elastic rebound theory,

Types and Nature of faulting, Fault plane solutions, Seismicity and

Seismotectonics of India, Frequency-Magnitude relation (b-values). Bulk and

rigidity modulus, Lame’s Parameter, Seismic waves: types and their propagation

characteristics, absorption, attenuation and dispersion. Seismic ray theory for

spherically and horizontally stratified earth, basic principles of Seismic

Tomography and receiver function analysis, Velocity structure, Vp/Vs studies,

Seismic network and arrays, telemetry systems, Principle of electromagnetic

seismograph, displacement meters, velocity meters, accelerometers, Broadband

Seismometer, WWSSN stations, seismic arrays for detection of nuclear

explosions. Earthquake prediction; dilatancy theory, short-, medium- and long-

term predictions, Seismic microzonations, Applications for engineering

problems.

A3. Mathematical methods in Geophysics: Elements of vector analysis,

Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem,

Gravitational field, Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravitation potential and

fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes, Coulomb’s law, Electrical

permittivity and dielectric constant, Origin of Magnetic field, Ampere’s law,

Biot and Savart’s law, Geomagnetic fields, Magnetic fields due to different

type of structures, Solution of Laplace equation in Cartesian, Cylindrical and

Spherical Coordinates, Image theory, Electrical fields due to charge, point

source, continuous charge distribution and double layers, equipotential and

line of force. Current and potential in the earth, basic concept and equations

of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s Equation, near and far fields,

Attenuation of EM waves, EM field of a loops of wire on half space and

multi-layered media.

A4. Geophysical Inversion: Fundamental concepts of inverse

theory, Definition and its application to Geophysics. Probability, Inversion

with discrete and continuous models. Forward problems versus Inverse problems,

direct and model based inversions, Formulation of inverse problems,

classification of inverse problems, least square solutions and minimum norm

solution, concept of norms, Jacobian matrix, Condition number, Stability,

non-uniqueness and resolution of inverse problems, concept of ‘a priori’

information, constrained linear least squares inversion, review of matrix

theory. Models and data spaces, data resolution matrix, model resolution

matrix, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, singular value decomposition (SVD),

Gauss Newton method, steepest descent (gradient) method, Marquardt Levenberg

method. Probabilistic approach of inverse problems, maximum likelihood and

stochastic inverse methods, Random search inversion (Monte-Carlo)

Backus-Gilbert method, Bayesian Theorem and Inversion. Global optimization

techniques: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing methods.

PART-B:

B1.

Mathematical Methods of Physics: Dimensional analysis; Units and measurement;

Vector algebra and vector calculus; Linear algebra, Matrices: Eigenvalues and

eigenvectors; Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order;

Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre); Fourier series,

Fourier and Laplace transforms; Elementary probability theory, Random

variables, Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Green’s function;

Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and

three dimensions); Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions,

interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule,

solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method;

Tensors; Complex variables and analysis; Analytic functions; Taylor &

Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals; Beta and Gamma

functions. Operators and their properties; Least-squares fitting.

B2.

Electrodynamics: Electrostatics: Gauss’ Law and its applications; Laplace and

Poisson equations, Boundary value problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law,

Ampere’s theorem; Ampere’s circuital law; Magnetic vector potential; Faraday’s

law of electromagnetic induction; Electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials;

Uniqueness of electromagnetic potentials and concept of gauge: Lorentz and

Coulomb gauges; Lorentz force; Charged particles in uniform and non-uniform

electric and magnetic fields; Poynting theorem; Electromagnetic fields from

Lienard-Wiechert potential of a moving charge; Bremsstrahlung radiation;

Cerenkov radiation; Radiation due to oscillatory electric dipole; Condition for plasma existence; Occurrence of plasma; Magnetohydrodynamics;

Plasma waves; Transformation of electromagnetic potentials; Lorentz condition;

Invariance or covariance of Maxwell field equations in terms of 4 vectors;

Electromagnetic field tensor; Lorentz transformation of electric and magnetic

fields.

B3. Electromagnetic Theory: Maxwell’s equations: its differential and

integral forms, physical significance; Displacement current; Boundary

conditions; Wave equation, Plane electromagnetic waves in: free space,

non-conducting isotropic medium, conducting medium; Scalar and vector

potentials; Reflection; refraction of electromagnetic waves; Fresnel’s Law;

interference; coherence; diffraction and polarization; Lorentz invariance of

Maxwell’s equations; Transmission lines and waveguides.

B4. Introductory

Atmospheric and Space Physics: The neutral atmosphere; Atmospheric

nomenclature; Height profile of atmosphere; Hydrostatic equation; Geopotential

height; Expansion and contraction; Fundamental forces in the atmosphere;

Apparent forces; Atmospheric composition; Solar radiation interaction with the

neutral atmosphere; Climate change; Electromagnetic radiation and propagation

of Waves: EM Radiation; Effects of environment; Antennas: basic considerations,

types. Propagation of waves: ground wave, sky wave, and space wave propagation;

troposcatter communication and extra terrestrial communication; The Ionosphere;

Morphology of ionosphere: the D, E and F-regions; Chemistry of the ionosphere

Ionospheric parameters E and F region anomalies and irregularities in the

ionosphere; Global Positioning Systems (GPS): overview of GPS system,

augmentation services GPS system segment; GPS signal characteristics; GPS

errors; multi path effects; GPS performance; Satellite navigation system and

applications.

#### Stage-II (Descriptive Type) Geophysics :

Paper-II PART-A

A1.

Potential Field (Gravity and Magnetic) Methods: Geophysical potential fields,

Inverse square law, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Global gravity

anomalies, Newtonian and logarithmic potential, Laplace’s equations for potential

field. Green’s Function, Concept of gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors

controlling rock densities, determination of density, Earth’s main magnetic

field, origin, diurnal and secular variations of the field, Geomagnetic

elements, intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential and its

relation to field, units of measurement, interrelationship between different

components of magnetic fields, Poisson’s relation, Magnetic susceptibility,

factors controlling susceptibility. Magnetic Mineralogy: Hysteresis, rock

magnetism, natural, and remnant magnetization, demagnetization effects.

Principles of Gravity and Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting gravity and

magnetic surveys, Gravity and Magnetic data reduction, Gravity bases, International

Gravity formula, IGRF corrections. Concept of regional and residual anomalies

and various methods of their separation, Edge Enhancement Techniques

(Derivatives, Continuation, Analytical Signal, Reduced to Pole and Euler

Deconvolution), ambiguity in potential field interpretation, Factors affecting

magnetic anomalies, Application of gravity and magnetics in geodynamic, mineral

exploration and environmental studies. Qualitative interpretation,

Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies due to different geometry

shaped bodies and modeling.

A2. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods:

Electrical properties of rocks and minerals, concepts and assumptions of

horizontally stratified earth, anisotropy and its effects on electrical fields,

geoelectric and geological sections, D.C Resistivity method. Concept of natural

electric field, various electrode configurations, Profiling and Sounding (VES).

Tpes of Sounding curves, Equivalence and Suppression, Concept of Electrical

Resistivity Tomography (ERT). SP Method:, Origin of SP, application of SP

surveys. Induced Polarization (IP) Method: Origin of IP, Membrane and Electrode

polarization, time and frequency domains of measurement, chargeability, percent

frequency effect and metal factor, Application of IP surveys for mineral

exploration. Electromagnetic methods, Passive and Active source methods,

Diffusion equation, wave equation and damped wave equation used in EM method,

boundary conditions, skin depth, depth of investigation and depth of

penetration, amplitude and phase relations, real and imaginary components,

elliptical polarization, Principles of EM prospecting, various EM methods: Dip

angle, Turam, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram), AFMAG,

and VLF.. Principles of Time Domain EM: INPUT method. EM Profiling and

sounding, Interpretation of EM anomalies. Principle of EM scale modeling.

Magnetotelluric methods: Origin and characteristics of MT fields,

Instrumentation, Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Modes, Static

Shift. Dimensionality and Directionality analysis. Field Layout and

interpretation of MT data and its applications. Principles of Ground

Penetrating Radar (GPR).

A3. Seismic Prospecting: Basic principles of

seismic methods, Various factors affecting seismic velocities in rocks,

Reflection, refraction and Energy partitioning at an interface, Geometrical

spreading, Reflection and refraction of wave phenomena in a layered and dipping

media. Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Multi channel seismic (CDP) data

acquisition (2D and 3D), sources of energy, Geophones, geometry of arrays,

different spread geometry, Instrumentation, digital recording. Different types

of multiples, Travel time curves, corrections, Interpretation of data, bright

spot, low velocity layer, Data processing, static and dynamic (NMO and DMO)

corrections, shot-receiver gather, foldage, multiplexing and demultiplexing.

Dix’s equation, Velocities: Interval, Average and RMS, Seismic resolution and

Fresnel Zone, Velocity analysis and Migration techniques, Seismic

Interpretation, Time and Depth Section, Fundamentals of VSP method, High

Resolution Seismic Surveys (HRSS).

A4. Borehole Geophysics: Objectives of well

logging, concepts of borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of

reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their

relationships-formation factor, porosity, permeability, formation water

resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon

saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Arhcie’s and Humble’s equations;

principles, instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations of

various geophysical logs: SP, resistivity and micro resistivity, gamma ray,

neutron, sonic, temperature, caliper and directional logs. Production logging,

overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation lithology,

porosity, permeability and oil-water saturation, sub-surface correlation and

mapping, delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon,

groundwater, coal, metallic and non-metallic mineral exploration.

**PART-B **

B1.

Classical Mechanics Inertial and non-inertial frames, Newton’s laws; Pseudo

forces; Central force motion; Two-body collisions, Scattering in laboratory and

centre-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, Moment of inertia, Variational

principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion;

Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, Invariance and

conservation laws, Cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, Small oscillations and

normal modes; Special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations,

Relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence.

B2. Thermodynamics and

Statistical Physics Laws of thermodynamics and their significance;

Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations; Chemical potential, Phase

equilibria; Phase space, Micro- and macro- states; Micro canonical, canonical

and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions; Free Energy and

connection with thermodynamic quantities; First and second order phase

transitions; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, Quantum statistics, Ideal Fermi

and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance; Blackbody radiation and Planck’s

distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; Random walk and Brownian motion;

Diffusion equation.

B3. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Characterization of

materials Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin;

Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of Hydrogen, Helium and alkali atoms;

Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and

isotopic shift; Width of spectral lines; LS and JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen

Back and Stark effects; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra

of diatomic molecules; FrankCondon principle; Thermal and optical properties of

materials, Study of microstructure using SEM, Study of crystal structure using

TEM, Resonance methods: Spin and applied magnetic field, Larmor precession,

relaxation times – spin-spin relaxation, Spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin

resonance, g factor, Nuclear Magnetic resonance, line width, Motional

narrowing, Hyperfine splitting; Nuclear Gamma Resonance: Principles of

Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption, Isomer Shift,

Quadrupole splitting. Nuclear and Particle Physics Basic nuclear

properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy,

Packing fraction, Semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and

fusion, Nuclear reactor; Line of stability, Characteristics of the nuclear

forces, Nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence and charge-symmetry of

nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure,

Single-particle shell model and, its validity and limitations; Elementary ideas

of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules; Nuclear reactions,

reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei and direct reactions; Classification of

fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons, mesons, leptons);

Spin and parity assignments, strangeness; Gell Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P and

T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions,

Parity non-conservation in weak interaction; Relativistic kinematics.

####
Stage-II

(Descriptive Type)

(Descriptive Type)

#### PART-A

A1. Radiometric and

Airborne Geophysics: Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay

processes, units, radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Instruments, Ionization

chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter, Gamma ray spectrometer,

Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications),

beach placers, titanium, zirconium and rare-earths, radon studies in seismology

and environmental applications. Airborne geophysical surveys (gravity,

magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric), planning of surveys, flight path

recovery methods. Applications in geological mapping, identification of

structural features and altered zones.

A2. Marine Geophysics: Salinity,

temperature and density of sea water. Introduction to Sea-floor features:

Physiography, divisions of sea floor, continental shelves, slopes, and abyssal

plains, growth and decline of ocean basins, turbidity currents, occurrence of

mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore. Geophysical surveys and

instrumentation: Gravity, Magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, Sonobuoy

surveys, Instrumentation used in ship borne surveys, towing cable and fish,

data collection and survey procedures, corrections and interpretation of data.

Oceanic magnetic anomalies, VineMathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and

dating sea floor, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges, basins, marginal basins,

rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Pinger, Boomer, Sparker, Air

gun, Hydrophones and steamer cabling. Data reduction and interpretation. Ocean

Bottom Seismic surveys. Bathymetry, echo sounding, bathymetric charts, sea bed

mapping. Navigation and Position fixing methods.

A3. Geophysical Signal

Processing: Time Series, Types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect,

Fourier series of periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its properties,

Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Hilbert Transform, Convolution and

Deconvolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function,

unit step function. Time domain windows, Z transform and properties, Inverse Z

transform. Poles and zeroes. Principles of digital filters, types of filters:

recursive, non recursive, time invariant, Chebyshev, Butterworth, moving

average, amplitude and phase response of filters, low pass, band pass and high

pass filters. Processing of Random signals. Improvement of signal to noise ratio,

source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as low pass filter.

A4.

Remote Sensing and Geohydrology: Fundamental concepts of remote sensing,

electromagnetic radiation spectrum, Interaction of electromagnetic energy and

its interactions in atmosphere and surface of the earth, elements of

photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false color composites, remote

sensing platforms, flight planning, geosynchronous and sun synchronous orbits,

sensors, resolution, parallax and vertical exaggeration, relief displacement,

mosaic, aerial photo interpretation and geological application. Fundamentals of

photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners, thermal

scanners, microwave remote sensing, fundamental of image processing and interpretation

for geological applications. Types of water bearing formations, porosity,

permeability, storage coefficient, specific storage, specific retention,

specific yield, Different types of aquifers, vertical distribution of ground

water, General flow equation; steady and unsteady flow of ground water in

unconfined and confined aquifers.

PART-B

B1. Solid State Physics and Basic

Electronics Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal

systems, Space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray

diffraction, Scanning and transmission electron microscopes; Band theory of

solids, conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of

solids, Specific heat: Einstein’s and Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and

ferro; Elements of superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and

applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.

Semiconductor devices and circuits: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors;

Devices and structures (p-n junctions, diodes, transistors, FET, JFET and

MOSFET, homo and hetero junction transistors, thermistors), Device

characteristics, Frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices

(solar cells, photo detectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers and their applications.

B2. Laser systems Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. Coherence,

Light amplification and relation between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate

equations for three and four level systems. Lasers: Ruby, Nd-YAG, CO2, Dye,

Excimer, Semiconductor. Laser cavity modes, Line shape function and full width

at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler

broadening; Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal and

transverse modes. Mode selection, ABCD matrices and cavity stability criteria

for confocal resonators. Quality factor, Expression for intensity for modes

oscillating at random and mode-locked in phase. Methods of Q-switching and mode

locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics. 25

B3. Digital

electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications Digital techniques and

applications: Boolean identities, de Morgan’s theorems, Logic gates and truth

tables; Simple logic circuits: registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits).

A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor: basics and architecture;

Microcontroller basics. Combination and sequential logic circuits, Functional

diagram, Timing diagram of read and write cycle, Data transfer techniques:

serial and parallel. Fundamentals of digital computers. Radar systems, Signal

and data processing, Surveillance radar, Tracking radar, Radar antenna

parameters. Fundamentals of satellite systems, Communication and Orbiting

satellites, Satellite frequency bands, Satellite orbit and inclinations. Earth

station technology.

B4. Quantum Mechanics Wave-particle duality; Wave functions

in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators and Heisenberg’s

uncertainty principle; Schrodinger’s wave equation (time-dependent and

timeindependent); Eigenvalue problems: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator,

tunneling through a 1-D barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular

momentum; Addition of angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Matrix representation;

Dirac’s bra and ket notations; Time-independent perturbation theory and

applications; Variational method; WKB approximation; Time dependent

perturbation theory and Fermi’s Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical

theory of radiation; Elementary theory of scattering, Phase shifts, Partial waves,

Born approximation; Identical particles, Pauli’s exclusion principle,

Spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein Gordon and

Dirac equations.

#### For the posts of Chemist/Scientist ‘B’(Chemical)

Stage-II

(Descriptive Type)

Chemistry : Paper-I (Inorganic Chemistry)

1. Inorganic

solids: Defects, non-stoichiometric compounds and solid solutions, atom and ion

diffusion, solid electrolytes. Synthesis of materials, monoxides of 3d-metals,

higher oxides, complex oxides (corundrum, ReO3, spinel, pervoskites), framework

structures (phosphates, aluminophosphates, silicates, zeolites), nitrides and

fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry, semiconductors, molecular

materials.

2. Chemistry of coordination compounds: Isomerism, reactivity and

stability: Determination of configuration of cis- and trans- isomers by

chemical methods. Labile and inert complexes, substitution reactions on square

planar complexes, trans effect. Stability constants of coordination compounds

and their importance in inorganic analysis. Structure and bonding: Elementary

Crystal Field Theory: splitting of dn configurations in octahedral, square

planar and tetrahedral fields, crystal field stabilization energy, pairing

energy. Jahn-Teller distortion. Metal-ligand bonding, sigma and pi bonding in

octahedral complexes and their effects on the oxidation states of transition

metals. Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin only moments and their

correlation with effective magnetic moments, d-d transitions; LS coupling,

spectroscopic ground states, selection rules for electronic spectral

transitions; spectrochemical series of ligands, charge transfer spectra.

3.

Acid base titrations: Titration curves for strong acid-strong base, weak

acid-strong base and weak base-strong acid titrations, polyprotic acids,

poly-equivalent bases, determining the equivalence point: theory of acidbase

indicators, pH change range of indicator, selection of proper indicator.

Principles used in estimation of mixtures of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry).

4. Gravimetric Analysis: General principles: Solubility, solubility product and

common ion effect, effect of temperature on the solubility; Salt hydrolysis,

hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis. Stoichiometry, calculation of

results from gravimetric data. Properties of precipitates. Nucleation and

crystal growth, factors influencing completion of precipitation.

Co-precipitation and postprecipitation, purification and washing of

precipitates. Precipitation from homogeneous solution. A few common gravimetric

estimations: chloride as silver chloride, sulphate as barium sulphate,

aluminium as oxinate and nickel as dimethyl glyoximate.

5. Redox Titrations:

Standard redox potentials, Nernst equation. Influence of complex formation,

precipitation and change of pH on redox potentials, Normal Hydrogen Electrode

(NHE). Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence

point, redox indicators. Redox potentials and their applications. Principles

behind Iodometry, permanganometry, dichrometry, difference between iodometry

and iodimetry. Principles of estimation of iron, copper, manganese, chromium by

redox titration.

6. Complexometric titrations: Complex formation

reactions, stability of complexes, stepwise formation constants, chelating

agents. EDTA: acidic properties, complexes with metal ions, equilibrium

calculations involving EDTA, conditional formation constants, derivation of

EDTA titration curves, effect of other complexing agents, factors affecting the

shape of titration curves: indicators for EDTA titrations, titration methods

employing EDTA: direct, back and displacement titrations, indirect

determinations, titration of mixtures, selectivity, masking and demasking

agents. Typical applications of EDTA titrations: hardness of water, magnesium

and aluminium in antacids, magnesium, manganese and zinc in a mixture,

titrations involving unidentate ligands: titration of chloride with Hg2+ and

cyanide with Ag+.

7. Organometallic compounds: 18-electron rule and its

applications to carbonyls and nature of bonding involved therein. Simple

examples of metal-metal bonded compounds and metal clusters. Wilkinson’s

catalyst.

8. Nuclear chemistry: Radioactive decay- General characteristics,

decay kinetics, parent-daughter decay growth relationships, determination of

half-lives. Nuclear stability. Decay theories. Unit of radioactivity.

Preparation of artificial radionuclides by bombardment, radiochemical

separation techniques. Experimental techniques in the assay of radioisotopes,

Geiger-Muller counters. Solid state detectors.

9. Chemistry of d- and f-block

elements: d-block elements: General comparison of 3d, 4d and 5d elements in

terms of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature,

atomization energy, oxidation states, redox properties, coordination chemistry,

spectral and magnetic properties. f-block elements: Electronic configuration,

ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, variation in atomic and ionic (3+)

radii, magnetic and spectral properties of lanthanides, separation of lanthanides

(by ion-exchange method).

####
Stage-II (Descriptive Type) Chemistry :

(Physical Chemistry)

1. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state: Real gases,

Deviation of gases from ideal behaviour; compressibility factor; van der Waals

equation of state and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state.

Critical constants in terms of van der Waals constants. Law of corresponding

states and significance of second virial coefficient. Boyle temperature.

2.

Solids: Nature of solid state. Band theory of solids: Qualitative idea of band

theory, conducting, semiconducting and insulating properties. Law of constancy

of angles, concept of unit cell, different crystal systems, Bravais lattices,

law of rational indices, Miller indices, symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray

diffraction, Bragg’s law.

3. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:

Chemical potential in terms of Gibbs energy and other thermodynamic state

functions and its variation with temperature and pressure. Gibbs-Duhem

equation; fugacity of gases and fugacity coefficient. Thermodynamic conditions

for equilibrium, degree of advancement. vant Hoff’s reaction isotherm.

Equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy change. Definitions of KP, KC

and Kx; vant Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochore. Activity and activity

coefficients of electrolytes / ions in solution. Debye-Hückel limiting law.

4.

Chemical kinetics and catalysis: Second order reactions. Determination of order

of reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions. Temperature dependence of reaction

rate, energy of activation. Collision Theory and Transition State Theory of

reaction rates. Enthalpy of activation, entropy of activation, effect of

dielectric constant and ionic strength on reaction rate, kinetic isotope

effect. Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and

Langmuir adsorption isotherms, BET equation, surface area determination;

colloids, electrical double layer and colloid stability, electrokinetic

phenomenon. Elementary ideas about soaps and detergents, micelles, emulsions.

5. Electrochemistry: Types of electrochemical cells, cell reactions, emf and

Nernst equation, ᐃG, ᐃH and ᐃS of cell reactions. Cell diagrams and IUPAC conventions. Standard cells.

Half-cells / electrodes, types of reversible electrodes. Standard electrode

potential and principles of its determination. Concentration cells.

Determination of ᐃGº, Kº, Ksp and pH. Basic principles

of pH metric and potentiometric titrations, determination of equivalence point

and pKa values.

6. Quantum chemistry: Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues.

Uncertainty relation, Expectation value. Hermitian operators. Schrödinger

time-independent equation: nature of the equation, acceptability conditions

imposed on the wave functions and probability interpretation of wave function.

Schrödinger equation for particle in a one-dimensional box and its

solution. Comparison with free particle eigenfunctions and eigenvalues.

Particle in a 3-D box and concept of degeneracy.

7. Basic principles and

applications of spectroscopy: Electromagnetic radiation, interaction with atoms

and molecules and quantization of different forms of energies. Units of

frequency, wavelength and wavenumber. Condition of resonance and energy of

absorption for various types of spectra; origin of atomic spectra, spectrum of

hydrogen atom. Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotor

model, selection rules, spectrum, characteristic features of spectral lines.

Determination of bond length, effect of isotopic substitution. Vibrational

spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Simple Harmonic Oscillator model, selection

rules and vibration spectra. Molecular vibrations, factors influencing

vibrational frequencies. Overtones, anharmonicity, normal mode analysis of

polyatomic molecules. Raman Effect: Characteristic features and conditions of

Raman activity with suitable illustrations. Rotational and vibrational Raman

spectra.

8. Photochemistry: Franck-Condon principle and vibrational structure

of electronic spectra. Bond dissociation and principle of determination of

dissociation energy. Decay of excited states by radiative and nonradiative

paths. Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram. Laws of

photochemistry: Grotthus-Draper law, Stark-Einstein law of photochemical

equivalence; quantum yield and its measurement for a photochemical process,

actinometry. Photostationary state. Photosensitized reactions. Kinetics of HI

decomposition, H2-Br2 reaction, dimerisation of anthracene.

Stage-II

(Descriptive Type)

Chemistry : Paper-III (Analytical and Organic)

PART-A

(Analytical Chemistry)

A1. Errors in quantitative analysis: Accuracy and

precision, sensitivity, specific standard deviation in analysis, classification

of errors and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection

of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test, control chart, sampling methods, sampling

errors, standard reference materials, statistical data treatment.

A2.

Separation Methods: Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of

chromatography (partition, adsorption and ion exchange), column chromatography,

plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed phase concept,

thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High Performance

Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ion-exchange

chromatography. Solvent extraction: Classification, principle and efficiency of

the technique, mechanism of extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation,

qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent extraction, extraction of metal

ions from aqueous solutions.

A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:

Lambert-Beer’s Law and its limitations. UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic

principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Instrumentation consisting of source,

monochromator, grating and detector, spectrophotometric determinations

(estimation of metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of composition

of metal complexes using Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio

method). Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of

source, monochromator and detector) for single and double beam instruments,

sampling techniques. Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic

principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator, detector,

choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization and sample

introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical

interferences and methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative

estimation of trace level metal ions. Basic principles and theory of AAS. Three

different modes of AAS – Flame-AAS, VG-AAS, and GF-AAS. Single beam and double

beam AAS. Function of Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode Discharge Lamp

(EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative

analysis.

A4. Thermal methods of analysis: Theory of thermogravimetry (TG),

basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative analysis of Ca

and Mg compounds.

A5. X-ray methods of Analysis: Introduction, theory of X-ray

generation, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence

methods, instrumentation and applications. Qualitative and quantitative

measurements. Powder diffraction method.

A6. Inductively coupled plasma

spectroscopy: Theory and principles, plasma generation, utility of peristaltic

pump, sampler–skimmer systems, ion lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode /

solid state detector, different types of interferences- spectroscopic

and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences,

applications.

A7. Analysis of geological materials: Analysis of minerals and

ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2 in

bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu

and Zn in brass (ii) Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze (iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and

P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’. Introduction to petroleum:

constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum products:

specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, colour determination, cloud

point, pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base

numbers), ash content, Determination of lead in petroleum. Types of coal and

coke, composition, preparation of sample for proximate and ultimate analysis,

calorific value by bomb calorimetry.

PART B (Organic chemistry)

B1. Unstable,

uncharged intermediates: Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and

their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann, Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schimdt,).

B2. Addition reactions: Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition

involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals (polymerization

reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for

polymerization, polyurethane, and conducting polymers; addition to conjugated

systems (Diels-Alder reaction), orientation and reactivity (on simple cis- and

trans- alkenes). Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O

double bond, structure and reactivity, hydration, addition of ROH, RSH, CN-,

bisulphite, amine derivatives, hydride ions.

B3: Reactions at the carbonyl

group: Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid

rearrangement, Mannich, Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner,

Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions.

B4. Oxidation and Reduction: Reduction of

C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner and Birch reduction. Oxidation of

C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis, epoxidation,

Sharpless epoxidation.

B5. Electrocyclic Reactions: Molecular orbital symmetry,

frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, allyl system,

FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, Woodward-Hoffman correlation diagram method

and perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) approach for the explanation of

pericyclic reactions under thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases

of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions. Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of

(4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis on [2+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions,

sigmatropic rearrangements- shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope,

Sommerlet-Hauser rearrangement.

B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis: Infrared

spectroscopy: Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and

interpretation of spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic

stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D, C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors

affecting stretching frequencies. Ultraviolet spectroscopy: Chromophores,

auxochromes. Electronic transitions (σ−σ*, n-σ*, π–π* and n-π*), relative positions of λmax considering conjugative effect,

steric effect, solvent effect, red shift (bathochromic shift), blue shift

(hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect (typical

examples). Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated

dienes, trienes, unsaturated carbonyl compounds and aromatic compounds. Nuclear

Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry: (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR) Nuclear spin, NMR

active nuclei, principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and

non-equivalent protons. Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding /

deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield shifts, intensity of NMR signals

and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin coupling to

13C I H-I H first order coupling: some simple I H-I H splitting patterns: the

magnitude of I H- I H coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy. Mass

spectrometry: Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope abundances; the

molecular ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement.