UPSC Combined Geo-Scientist Syllabus ! Combined Geo-Scientist 2021-2022



Paper-I in General
Studies of Stage-I is common for all streams and its standard will be such as
may be expected of a science graduate. Paper-II of Stage-I (Stream specific)
and 3 compulsory papers of Stage-II each on Geology, Geophysics, Chemistry and
Hydrogeology subjects will be approximately of the M.Sc. degree standard of an
Indian University and questions will generally be set to test the candidate’s
grasp of the fundamentals in each subject. 

There will be no practical
examination in any of the subjects

Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist
(Preliminary) Examination 
Stage-I (Objective Type)
Paper-I: General Studies
(Common for all streams)  

Current events
of national and international importance.
 History of India and Indian National Movement.·  Indian and World Geography -Physical, Social,
Economic Geography of India and the World.
·  Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution,
Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy,
· Rights Issues, etc. Economic and Social Development – Sustainable
Development, Poverty, Inclusion,
· Demographics, Social Sector
initiatives, etc.  General issues on
Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not
· require subject specialisation  General Science· 

Stage-I (Objective Type) 
Paper-II :

1. Physical Geology Principle of uniformitarianism;
origin, differentiation and internal structure of the Earth; origin of
atmosphere; earthquakes and volcanoes; continental drift, sea-floor spreading,
isostasy, orogeny and plate tectonics; geological action of rivers, wind,
glaciers, waves; erosional and depositional landforms; weathering processes and
products. 15  2. Structural Geology Stress, strain and rheological
properties of rocks; planar and linear structures; classification of folds and
faults; Mohr’s circle and criteria for failure of rocks; ductile and brittle
shear in rocks; study of toposheets, V-rules and outcrop patterns;
stereographic projections of structural elements. 3. Mineralogy Elements of
symmetry, notations and indices; Bravais lattices; chemical classification of
minerals; isomorphism, polymorphism, solid solution and exsolution; silicate
structures; physical and optical properties of common rock forming minerals-
olivine, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar and quartz. 4. Igneous
Petrology Magma types and their evolution; IUGS classification of igneous
rocks; forms, structures and textures of igneous rocks; applications of binary
and ternary phase diagrams in petrogenesis; magmatic differentiation and assimilation;
petrogenesis of granites, basalts, komatiiites and alkaline rocks (carbonatite,
kimberlite, lamprophyre and nepheline syenite). 5. Metamorphic Petrology
Limits, types and controls of metamorphism; metamorphic structures- slate,
schist and gneiss; metamorphic textures- pre, syn and post tectonic
porphyroblasts; concept of metamorphic zone, isograd and facies; geothermal
gradients, facies series and plate tectonics. 6. Sedimentology Origin of
sediments; sedimentary textures, grain-size scale; primary sedimentary
structures; classification of sandstone and carbonate rocks; siliciclastic
depositional environments and sedimentary facies; diagenesis of carbonate
sediments. 7. Paleontology Fossils and processes of fossilization; concept of
species and binomial nomenclature; morphology and classification of
invertebrates (Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and
Cephalopods); evolution in Equidae and Hominidae; microfossils-Foraminifera,
Ostracoda; Gondwana flora. 8. Stratigraphy Law of superposition; stratigraphic
nomenclature- lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy;
Archaean cratonic nucleii of Peninsular India (Dharwar, Singhbhum, and Aravalli
cratons); Proterozoic mobile belts (Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi
and Eastern Ghats); Purana sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan);
Phanerozoic stratigraphy of IndiaSpiti, Kashmir, Damodar valley, Kutch,
Trichinopoly, Siwaliks and Indo-Gangetic alluvium. 9. Economic Geology
Properties of mineral deposits- form, mineral assemblage, texture, rock-ore
association and relationship; magmatic, sedimentary, metamorphic, hydrothermal,
supergene and weatheringrelated processes of ore formation; processes of
formation of coal, and petroleum; distribution and geological characteristics
of major mineral and hydrocarbon deposits of India. 10. Hydrogeology
Groundwater occurrence and aquifer characteristics, porosity, permeability,
hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity; Darcy’s Law in homogenous and
heterogenous media; Bernoulli equation, Reynold’s number; composition of
groundwater; application of H and O isotopes in groundwater studies; artificial
recharge of groundwater. 

Stage-I (Objective Type)
Paper-II : Geophysics 

Solid Earth Geophysics: Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. Solar
system: origin, formation and characteristics of planets, Earth: shape and
rotation. Gravity and magnetic fields of earth. Geomagnetism, elements of
earth’s magnetism, Rock and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types and their
propagation characteristics, internal structure of earth, variation of physical
properties in the interior of earth. Plate tectonics, Earthquakes and their
causes, focal depth, epicenter, Intensity and Magnitude scales, Energy of
earthquakes, Seismicity. 

2. Mathematical Methods in Geophysics: Elements of
vector analysis, Vector algebra, Properties of scalars, vectors and tensors,
Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem.
Matrices, Eigen values and Eigen vectors and their applications in geophysics.
Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravity potential and gravity fields due to bodies
of different geometric shapes. Basic Forces of Nature and their strength:
Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak forces. Conservation Laws in
Physics: Energy, Linear and angular momentum. Rigid body motion and moment of
inertia. Basics of special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformation.
Fundamental concepts of inverse theory, Definition of inversion and application
to Geophysics. Forward and Inverse problems. Probability theory, Random
variables, binomial, Poisson 16  and normal distributions. Linear algebra,
Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order. Partial
differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and three
dimensions). Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions,
interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule,
solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method,
Introduction to finite difference and finite elements methods. 

Electromagnetism: Electrostatic and magneto-static fields, Coulomb’s law,
Electrical permittivity and dielectric constant, Lorentz force and their
applications. Ampere’s law, Biot and Savart’s law, Gauss’s Theorem, Poisson’s
equation. Laplace’s equation: solution of Laplace’s equation in Cartesian
coordinates, use of Laplace’s equation in the solutions of geophysical and
electrostatic problems. Displacement current, Faraday’s law of electromagnetic
induction. Maxwell’s equations. Boundary conditions. Wave equation, plane
electromagnetic waves in free space, dielectric and conducting media,
electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials. 

4. Geophysical Prospecting:
Elements of geophysical methods: Principles, data reduction and applications of
gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic and well logging methods.
Fundamentals of seismic methods: Fermat’s Principle, Snell’s Law, Energy
portioning, Reflection and transmission coefficients, Reflection and Refraction
from layered media. Signals and systems, sampling theorem, aliasing effect,
Fourier series and periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its application,
Laplace transforms, Convolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum,
Delta function, unit step function. 

5. Remote Sensing and Thermodynamics:
Fundamentals of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum, energy-
frequency-wavelength relationship, Stefan-Boltzmann Law, Wien’s Law,
electromagnetic energy and its interactions in the atmosphere and with terrain
features. Planck’s Radiation Law. Laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic

6. Nuclear Physics and Radiometry: Basic nuclear properties: size,
shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy, semi-empirical
mass formula; Fission and fusion. Principles of radioactivity, Alpha, beta and
gamma decays, Photoelectric and Compton Effect, Pair Production, radioactivity
decay law, radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Radiation Detectors: Ionization
chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter and Gamma ray spectrometer. Matter
Waves and wave particle duality, Electron spin, Spectrum of Hydrogen, helium
and alkali atoms. 

Stage-I (Objective Type) 

Paper-II : Chemistry 

  • 1. Chemical
    periodicity: Schrödinger equation for the H-atom. Radial distribution curves
    for 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d orbitals. Electronic configurations of
    multi-electron atoms. Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in
    physical properties. Classification of elements on the basis of electronic
    configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristics of s, p, d
    and f block elements. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, atomic
    radii, ionic radii, covalent radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy
    and electronegativity. Group trends and periodic trends in these properties in
    respect of s-, p- and d-block elements. General trends of variation of
    electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature, magnetic
    properties, catenation and catalytic properties, oxidation states, aqueous and
    redox chemistry in common oxidation states, properties and reactions of
    important compounds such as hydrides, halides, oxides, oxy-acids, complex
    chemistry in respect of s-block and p-block elements. 
  • 2. Chemical bonding and
    structure: Ionic bonding: Size effects, radius ratio rules and their
    limitations. Packing of ions in crystals, lattice energy, Born-Landé equation
    and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy,
    polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential, Fajan’s rules. Defects in
    solids. Covalent bonding: Valence Bond Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory,
    hybridization. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.
    Coordinate bonding: Werner theory of coordination compounds, double salts and
    complex salts. Ambidentate and polydentate ligands, chelate complexes. IUPAC
    nomenclature of coordination compounds. Coordination numbers, Geometrical
    isomerism. Stereoisomerism in square planar and octahedral complexes. 
  • 3. Acids
    and bases: Chemical and ionic equilibrium. Strengths of acids and bases.
    Ionization of weak acids and bases in aqueous solutions, application of
    Ostwald’s dilution law, ionization constants, ionic product 17  of water,
    pH-scale, effect of temperature on pH, buffer solutions and their pH values,
    buffer action & buffer capacity; different types of buffers and Henderson’s
  • 4. Theoretical basis of quantitative inorganic analysis: Volumetric
    Analysis: Equivalent weights, different types of solutions, normal and molar
    solutions. Primary and secondary standard substances. General principles of
    different types of titrations: i) acid-base, ii) redox, iii) complexometric,
    iv) Precipitation. Types of indicators – i) acid-base, ii) redox iii) metal-ion
  • 5. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state: Kinetic theory of gases,
    average kinetic energy of translation, Boltzmann constant and absolute scale of
    temperature. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of speeds. Calculations of average,
    root mean square and most probable velocities. Collision diameter; collision number
    and mean free path; frequency of binary collisions; wall collision and rate of
    effusion. 6. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium: First law and
    its applications to chemical problems. Thermodynamic functions. Total
    differentials and state functions. Free expansion, Joule-Thomson coefficient
    and inversion temperature. Hess’ law. Applications of Second law of
    thermodynamics. Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A), Gibbs-Helmholtz
    equation, criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity of chemical
  • 7. Solutions of non-electrolytes: Colligative properties of
    solutions, Raoult’s Law, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis and
    osmotic pressure; elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point
    of solvents. Solubility of gases in liquids and solid solutions. 
  • 8.
    Electrochemistry: Cell constant, specific conductance and molar conductance.
    Kohlrausch’s law of independent migration of ions, ion conductance and ionic
    mobility. Equivalent and molar conductance at infinite dilution. Debye-Hückel
    theory. Application of conductance measurements. Conductometric titrations.
    Determination of transport number by moving boundary method. 
  • 9. Basic organic
    chemistry: Delocalized chemical bond, resonance, conjugation, hyperconjugation,
    hybridisation, orbital pictures of bonding sp3, sp2, sp: C-C, C-N and C-O
    system), bond polarization and bond polarizability. Reactive intermediates:
    General methods of formation, relative stability and reactivity of
    carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.
  •  10. Stereochemistry: Configuration
    and chirality (simple treatment of elements of symmetry), optical isomerism of
    compounds containing two to three stereogenic centres, R,S nomenclature,
    geometrical isomerism in compounds containing two C=C double bonds (E,Z
    naming), and simple cyclic systems, Newman projection (ethane and substituted
  • 11. Types of organic reactions: Aliphatic substitution reactions: SN1,
    SN2 mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic
    substitutions. Effect of substrate structure, attacking nucleophile, leaving
    group and reaction medium and competitive reactions. Elimination reactions: E1,
    E2, mechanisms, stereochemistry, relative reactivity in aliphatic eliminations.
    Effect of substrate structure, attacking base, leaving group, reaction medium
    and competitive reactions, orientation of the double bond, Saytzeff and Hoffman
    rules. Addition reactions: Electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical addition
    reactions at carbon-carbon double bonds. Electrophilic and nucleophilic
    aromatic substitution: Electrophilic (halogenation, sulphonation, nitration,
    Friedal-Crafts alkylation and acylation), nucleophilic (simple SNAr, SN1 and
    aryne reactions). 
  • 12. Molecular Rearrangements: Acid induced rearrangement and
    Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Neighbouring group participation. 


Syllabus of Combined Geo-Scientist (Main) 

Examination For the post of
Geologist/Scientist ‘B’(Hydrogeology) 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) 
Geology :

Section A. Physical geology and remote sensing Evolution of Earth;
Earth’s internal structure; earthquakes and volcanoes; principles of geodesy,
isostasy; weathering- processes and products; geomorphic landforms formed by
action of rivers, wind, glaciers, waves and groundwater; features of ocean
floor; continental shelf, slope and rise; 18  concepts of landscape
evolution; major geomorphic features of India- coastal, peninsular and extra
peninsular. Electromagnetic spectrum; electromagnetic bands in remote sensing;
spectral signatures of soil, rock, water and vegetation; thermal, near
infra-red and microwave remote sensing; digital image processing; LANDSAT, IRS
and SPOT- characteristics and use; aerial photos- types, scale, parallax,
relief displacement; elements of image interpretation. 

Section B. Structural
geology Principles of geological mapping; kinematic and dynamic analysis of
deformation; stress-strain relationships for elastic, plastic and viscous
materials; measurement of strain in deformed rocks; structural analysis of
fold, cleavage, boudin, lineation, joint, and fault; stereographic projection
of linear and planar structures; superposed deformation; deformation at
microscale- dynamic and static recrystallisation, controls of strain rate and
temperature on development of microfabrics; brittle and ductile shear zones;
time relationship between crystallisation and deformation, calculation of

Section C. Sedimentology Classification of sedimentary rocks;
sedimentary textures-grain size, roundness, sphericity, shape and fabric;
quantitative grain size analysis; sediment transport and deposition- fluid and
sediment gravity flows, laminar and turbulent flows, Reynold’s number, Froude
number, grain entrainment, Hjulstrom diagram, bed load and suspension load
transport; primary sedimentary structures; penecontemporaneous deformation
structure; biogenic structures; principles and application of paleocurrent
analysis; composition and significance of different types of sandstone,
limestone, banded iron formation, mudstone, conglomerate; carbonate diagenesis
and dolomitisation; sedimentary environments and facies-facies models for
fluvial, glacial, deltaic, siliciclastic shallow and deep marine environments;
carbonate platforms- types and facies models; sedimentation in major tectonic settings;
principles of sequence stratigraphy-concepts, and factors controlling base
level changes, parasequence, clinoform, systems tract, unconformity and
sequence boundary. 

Section D. Paleontology Fossil record and geological time
scale; modes of preservation of fossils and concept of taphonomy; body- and
ichno-fossils, species concept, organic evolution, Ediacara Fauna; morphology
and time range of Graptolites, Trilobites, Brachiopods, Lamellibranchs,
Gastropods, Cephalopods, Echinoids and Corals; evolutionary trends in
Trilobites, Lamellibranchs, Gastropods and Cephalopods; micropaleontology-
methods of preparation of microfossils, morphology of microfossil groups
(Foraminifera, Ostracoda), fossil spores, pollen and dinoflagellates; Gondwana
plant fossils and their significance; vertebrate life through ages, evolution
in Proboscidea, Equidae and Hominidae; applications of paleontological data in
stratigraphy, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology; mass extinctions. 

Section E.
Stratigraphy Principles of stratigraphy-code of stratigraphic nomenclature of
India; lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy and
magnetostratigraphy; principles of stratigraphic correlation; characteristics
of Archean granite-greenstone belts; Indian stratigraphy- geological evolution
of Archean nucleii (Dharwar, Bastar, Singhbhum, Aravalli and Bundelkhand);
Proterozoic mobile beltsEastern Ghats Mobile Belt, Southern Granulite Terrain,
Central Indian Tectonic Zone, Aravalli-Delhi Belt, North Singhbhum Mobile Belt;
Proterozoic sedimentary basins (Cuddapah and Vindhyan); Phanerozoic
stratigraphy- Paleozoic (Spiti, Kashmir and Kumaon), Mesozoic (Spiti, Kutch,
Narmada Valley and Trichinopoly), Gondwana Supergroup, Cenozoic (Assam, Bengal
basins, Garhwal-Shimla Himalayas); Siwaliks; boundary problems in Indian

Stage-II (Descriptive Type)
Geology : Paper-II 

Section A.
Mineralogy Symmetry, motif, Miller indices; concept of unit cell and Bravais
lattices; 32 crystal classes; types of bonding, Pauling’s rules and coordination
polyhedra; crystal imperfections-defects, twinning and zoning; polymorphism,
pseudomorphism, isomorphism and solid solution; physical properties of
minerals; polarising microscope and accessory plate; optical properties of
minerals- double refraction, polarisation, pleochroism, sign of elongation,
interference figure and optic sign; structure, composition, physical and
optical properties of major rock-forming minerals- olivine, garnet,
aluminosilicates, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, feldspar, clay, silica and spinel

Section B. Geochemistry and isotope geology Chemical composition and
characteristics of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere; geochemical cycles;
meteorites-types and composition; Goldschmidt’s classification of elements;
fractionation of elements in minerals/rocks; Nernst’s partition coefficient
(compatible and incompatible elements), 19  Nernst-Berthelot partition
coefficient and bulk partition coefficient; Fick’s laws of diffusion and
activity composition relation (Roult’s and Henry’s law); application of trace
elements in petrogenesis; principles of equilibrium and Rayleigh fractionation;
REE patterns, Eh and pH diagrams and mineral stability. Half-life and decay
equation; dating of minerals and rocks with potassium-argon, rubidiumstrontium,
uranium-lead and samarium-neodymium isotopes; petrogenetic implications of
samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium systems; stable isotope geochemistry
of carbon, oxygen and sulphur and their applications in geology; monazite
chemical dating. 

Section C. Igneous petrology Viscosity, temperature and
pressure relationships in magmas; IUGS classification of plutonic and volcanic
rocks; nucleation and growth of minerals in magmatic rocks, development of
igneous textures; magmatic evolution (differentiation, assimilation, mixing and
mingling); types of mantle melting (batch, fractional and dynamic); binary
(albite-anorthite, forsterite-silica and diopsideanorthite) and ternary
(diopside-forsterite-silica, diopside-forsterite-anorthite and nephelinekalsilite-silica)
phase diagrams and relevance to magmatic crystallization; petrogenesis of
granites, basalts, ophiolite suite, komatiites, syenites, boninites,
anorthosites and layered complexes, and alkaline rocks (carbonatite,
kimberlite, lamproite, lamprophyre); mantle metasomatism, hotspot magmatism and
large igneous provinces of India. 

Section D. Metamorphic petrology Limits and
physico-chemical controls (pressure, temperature, fluids and bulk rock
composition) of metamorphism; concept of zones, facies, isograds and facies
series, geothermal gradients and tectonics of orogenic belts; structures,
micro-structures and textures of regional and contact metamorphic rocks;
representation of metamorphic assemblages (ACF, AKF and AFM diagrams);
equilibrium concept in thermodynamics; laws of thermodynamics, enthalpy,
entropy, Gibb’s free energy, chemical potential, fugacity and activity; tracing
the chemical reactions in P-T space, phase rule and mineralogical phase rule in
multi-component system; Claussius-Clapeyron equation and slopes of metamorphic
reactions; heat flow, diffusion and mass transfer; Fourier’s law of heat
conduction; geothermobarometry; mass and energy change during fluid-rock
interactions; charnockite problem, formation of skarns, progressive and retrogressive
metamorphism of pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks; P-T-t path and tectonic

Section E. Geodynamics Phase transitions and seismic discontinuities
in the Earth; seismic waves and relation between Vp, Vs and density; seismic
and petrological Moho; rheology of rocks and fluids (Newtonian and nonNewtonian
liquids); rock magnetism and its origin; polarity reversals, polar wandering
and supercontinent cycles; continental drift, sea floor spreading; gravity and
magnetic anomalies of ocean floors and their significance; mantle plumes and
their origin; plate tectonics- types of plate boundaries and their
inter-relationship; heat flow and heat production of the crust. 

(Descriptive Type) 
Geology : Paper-III 

Section A. Economic geology Ore minerals
and industrial minerals; physical and optical properties of ore minerals; ore
textures and paragenesis; characteristics of mineral deposits- spatial and
temporal distribution, rock-ore association; syngenetic and epigenetic
deposits, forms of ore bodies, stratiform and strata-bound deposits; ore
forming processes- source and migration of ore constituents and ore fluid,
mechanism of ore deposition; magmatic and pegmatitic deposits (chromite,
Ti-magnetite, diamond, Cu-Ni sulphide, PGE, REE, muscovite, rare metals);
hydrothermal deposits (porphyry Cu-Mo, greisen SnW, skarn, VMS and SEDEX type
sulphide deposits, orogenic gold); sedimentary deposits (Fe, Mn, phosphorite,
placer); supergene deposits (Cu, Al, Ni and Fe); metamorphic and metamorphosed
deposits (Mn, graphite); fluid inclusions in ore mineral assemblage- physical
and chemical properties, microthermometry; stable isotope (S, C, O, H) in ore
genesis- geothermometry, source of ore constituents; global tectonics and

Section B. Indian mineral deposits and mineral economics
Distribution of mineral deposits in Indian shield; geological characteristics
of important industrial mineral and ore deposits in India- chromite, diamond,
muscovite, Cu-Pb-Zn, Sn-W, Au, Fe-Mn, bauxite; minerals used in refractory,
fertilizer, ceramic, cement, glass, paint industries; minerals used as
abrasive, filler; building stones. Strategic, critical and essential minerals;
India’s status in mineral production; co-products and byproducts; consumption,
substitution and conservation of minerals; National Mineral Policy ; Mineral
Concession Rules; marine mineral resources and laws of the sea. 

Section C.
Mineral exploration Stages of exploration; scope, objectives and methods of
prospecting, regional exploration and detailed exploration; geological,
geochemical and geobotanical methods; litho-, bio-, soil geochemical surveys,
mobility and dispersion of elements, geochemical anomalies; ore controls and
guides;   pitting, trenching, drilling; sampling, assaying, ore reserve
estimation; categorization of ore reserves; geophysical methods- ground and
airborne surveys; gravity, magnetic, electrical and seismic methods of mineral

Section D. Fuel geology and Engineering geology Coal and its
properties; proximate and ultimate analysis; different varieties and ranks of
coal; concept of coal maturity, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal;
origin of coal, coalification process; lithotypes, microlithotypes and maceral
groups of coal; mineral and organic matter in coal; lignite and coal deposits
of India; origin, migration and entrapment of natural hydrocarbons;
characteristics of source and reservoir rocks; structural, stratigraphic and
mixed traps; geological, geochemical and geophysical methods of hydrocarbon
exploration; petroliferous basins of India; geological characteristics and
genesis of major types of U deposits and their distribution in India. .
Engineering properties of rocks; geological investigations in construction of
dams, reservoirs, tunnels, bridges, highways and coastal protection structures;
geologic considerations of construction materials. 

Section E. Environmental
geology and Natural hazards Stefan-Boltzmann equation and planetary
temperature; cause and effects of global climate change; Earth’s radiation
budget; greenhouse gases and effect; examples of positive and negative feedback
mechanisms; biogeochemical cycle of carbon; geological investigations of
nuclear waste disposal sites; marginal marine environments- estuaries,
mangroves and lagoons; ozone hole depletion, ocean acidification, coral
bleaching, Milankovitch cycle, sea level rise, eutrophication and acid rain;
environmental impacts of urbanization, mining and hydropower projects; water
pollution, water logging and soil erosion; Himalayan glaciers; causes and
consequences of earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami, floods, landslides, coastal
erosion, droughts and desertification; application of remote sensing and
geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental management. 

Stage-II (Descriptive


Section A. Occurrence and distribution of groundwater Origin
of water on Earth; global water cycle and budget; residence time concept,
geologic formations as aquifers; confined and unconfined aquifers; groundwater
table mapping and piezometric nests; porosity, void ratio, effective porosity
and representative porosity range; primary and secondary porosities;
groundwater zonation; specific retention, specific yield; groundwater basins;

Section B. Groundwater movement and well hydraulics Groundwater flow
concepts; Darcy’s Law in isotropic and anisotropic media and validity; water
flow rates, direction and water volume in aquifers; permeability and hydraulic
conductivity and ranges in representative rocks; Bernoulli equation; determination
of hydraulic conductivity in field and laboratory; concept of groundwater flow
through dispersion and diffusion; transmissivity and aquifer thickness. 

C. Water wells and groundwater levels Unidirectional and radial flow to a well
(steady and unsteady); well flow near aquifer boundaries; methods for
constructing shallow wells, drilling wells, well completion; testing wells,
pumping test, slug tests for confined and unconfined aquifers; fluctuations in
groundwater levels; stream flow and groundwater flows; groundwater level
fluctuations; land subsidence; impact of global climate change on groundwater. 

Section D. Groundwater exploration Surface investigation of groundwater-
geologic, remote sensing, electrical resistivity, seismic, gravity and magnetic
methods; sub-surface investigation of groundwater- test drilling, resistivity
logging, spontaneous potential logging, radiation logging. 

Section E.
Groundwater quality and management Groundwater composition, units of
expression, mass-balance calculations; rock-water interaction (chemical
equilibrium, free energy, redox reactions and cation/anion exchanges), graphic
representation of chemical data; groundwater hardness, microorganisms in
groundwater; water quality standards; sea-water intrusion; groundwater issues
due to urbanization; solid and liquid waste disposal and plume migration
models; application of isotopes (H, C, O) in groundwater; concepts of
artificial recharge methods; managing groundwater resources; groundwater basin
investigations and management practices. 

For the post of Geophysicist/Scientist
Stage-II (Descriptive Type) Geophysics :
Paper-I PART-A

Solid Earth Geophysics:   Introduction to Geophysics and its branches.
Solar system: origin, characteristics of planets, Earth: rotation and figure,
Geoid, Spheroid and topography. Plate tectonics and Geodynamic processes,
Thermal history and heat flow, Temperature variation in the earth, convection
currents. Gravity field of earth and Isostasy. Geomagnetism, elements of
earth’s magnetism: Internal and External fields and their causes,
Paleomagnetism, Polar wandering paths, Continental drift, Seafloor spreading
and its geophysical evidences. Elastic Waves, Body Waves and internal structure
of earth, variation of physical properties in the interior of earth,
Adam-Williamson’s Equation. 

A2. Earthquake Seismology: Seismology, earthquakes,
focal depth, epicenter, great Indian earthquakes, Intensity and Magnitude
scales, Energy of earthquakes, foreshocks, aftershocks, Elastic rebound theory,
Types and Nature of faulting, Fault plane solutions, Seismicity and
Seismotectonics of India, Frequency-Magnitude relation (b-values). Bulk and
rigidity modulus, Lame’s Parameter, Seismic waves: types and their propagation
characteristics, absorption, attenuation and dispersion. Seismic ray theory for
spherically and horizontally stratified earth, basic principles of Seismic
Tomography and receiver function analysis, Velocity structure, Vp/Vs studies,
Seismic network and arrays, telemetry systems, Principle of electromagnetic
seismograph, displacement meters, velocity meters, accelerometers, Broadband
Seismometer, WWSSN stations, seismic arrays for detection of nuclear
explosions. Earthquake prediction; dilatancy theory, short-, medium- and long-
term predictions, Seismic microzonations, Applications for engineering

A3. Mathematical methods in Geophysics: Elements of vector analysis,
Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Gauss’s divergence theorem, Stoke’s theorem,
Gravitational field, Newton’s Law of gravitation, Gravitation potential and
fields due to bodies of different geometric shapes, Coulomb’s law, Electrical
permittivity and dielectric constant, Origin of Magnetic field, Ampere’s law,
Biot and Savart’s law, Geomagnetic fields, Magnetic fields due to different
type of structures, Solution of Laplace equation in Cartesian, Cylindrical and
Spherical Coordinates, Image theory, Electrical fields due to charge, point
source, continuous charge distribution and double layers, equipotential and
line of force. Current and potential in the earth, basic concept and equations
of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s Equation, near and far fields,
Attenuation of EM waves, EM field of a loops of wire on half space and
multi-layered media. 

A4. Geophysical Inversion: Fundamental concepts of inverse
theory, Definition and its application to Geophysics. Probability, Inversion
with discrete and continuous models. Forward problems versus Inverse problems,
direct and model based inversions, Formulation of inverse problems,
classification of inverse problems, least square solutions and minimum norm
solution, concept of norms, Jacobian matrix, Condition number, Stability,
non-uniqueness and resolution of inverse problems, concept of ‘a priori’
information, constrained linear least squares inversion, review of matrix
theory. Models and data spaces, data resolution matrix, model resolution
matrix, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, singular value decomposition (SVD),
Gauss Newton method, steepest descent (gradient) method, Marquardt Levenberg
method. Probabilistic approach of inverse problems, maximum likelihood and
stochastic inverse methods, Random search inversion (Monte-Carlo)
Backus-Gilbert method, Bayesian Theorem and Inversion. Global optimization
techniques: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing methods. 


Mathematical Methods of Physics: Dimensional analysis; Units and measurement;
Vector algebra and vector calculus; Linear algebra, Matrices: Eigenvalues and
eigenvectors; Linear ordinary differential equations of first and second order;
Special functions (Hermite, Bessel, Laguerre and Legendre); Fourier series,
Fourier and Laplace transforms; Elementary probability theory, Random
variables, Binomial, Poisson and normal distributions; Green’s function;
Partial differential equations (Laplace, wave and heat equations in two and
three dimensions); Elements of numerical techniques: root of functions,
interpolation, and extrapolation, integration by trapezoid and Simpson’s rule,
solution of first order differential equation using Runge-Kutta method;
Tensors; Complex variables and analysis; Analytic functions; Taylor &
Laurent series; poles, residues and evaluation of integrals; Beta and Gamma
functions. Operators and their properties; Least-squares fitting. 

Electrodynamics: Electrostatics: Gauss’ Law and its applications; Laplace and
Poisson equations, Boundary value problems; Magnetostatics: Biot-Savart law,
Ampere’s theorem; Ampere’s circuital law; Magnetic vector potential; Faraday’s
law of electromagnetic induction; Electromagnetic vector and scalar potentials;
Uniqueness of electromagnetic potentials and concept of gauge: Lorentz and
Coulomb gauges; Lorentz force; Charged particles in uniform and non-uniform
electric and magnetic fields; Poynting theorem; Electromagnetic fields from
Lienard-Wiechert potential of a moving charge; Bremsstrahlung radiation;
Cerenkov radiation; Radiation due to oscillatory electric dipole; Condition   for plasma existence; Occurrence of plasma; Magnetohydrodynamics;
Plasma waves; Transformation of electromagnetic potentials; Lorentz condition;
Invariance or covariance of Maxwell field equations in terms of 4 vectors;
Electromagnetic field tensor; Lorentz transformation of electric and magnetic

B3. Electromagnetic Theory: Maxwell’s equations: its differential and
integral forms, physical significance; Displacement current; Boundary
conditions; Wave equation, Plane electromagnetic waves in: free space,
non-conducting isotropic medium, conducting medium; Scalar and vector
potentials; Reflection; refraction of electromagnetic waves; Fresnel’s Law;
interference; coherence; diffraction and polarization; Lorentz invariance of
Maxwell’s equations; Transmission lines and waveguides. 

B4. Introductory
Atmospheric and Space Physics: The neutral atmosphere; Atmospheric
nomenclature; Height profile of atmosphere; Hydrostatic equation; Geopotential
height; Expansion and contraction; Fundamental forces in the atmosphere;
Apparent forces; Atmospheric composition; Solar radiation interaction with the
neutral atmosphere; Climate change; Electromagnetic radiation and propagation
of Waves: EM Radiation; Effects of environment; Antennas: basic considerations,
types. Propagation of waves: ground wave, sky wave, and space wave propagation;
troposcatter communication and extra terrestrial communication; The Ionosphere;
Morphology of ionosphere: the D, E and F-regions; Chemistry of the ionosphere
Ionospheric parameters E and F region anomalies and irregularities in the
ionosphere; Global Positioning Systems (GPS): overview of GPS system,
augmentation services GPS system segment; GPS signal characteristics; GPS
errors; multi path effects; GPS performance; Satellite navigation system and

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) Geophysics : 
Paper-II PART-A 

Potential Field (Gravity and Magnetic) Methods: Geophysical potential fields,
Inverse square law, Principles of Gravity and Magnetic methods, Global gravity
anomalies, Newtonian and logarithmic potential, Laplace’s equations for potential
field. Green’s Function, Concept of gravity anomaly, Rock densities, factors
controlling rock densities, determination of density, Earth’s main magnetic
field, origin, diurnal and secular variations of the field, Geomagnetic
elements, intensity of magnetization and induction, magnetic potential and its
relation to field, units of measurement, interrelationship between different
components of magnetic fields, Poisson’s relation, Magnetic susceptibility,
factors controlling susceptibility. Magnetic Mineralogy: Hysteresis, rock
magnetism, natural, and remnant magnetization, demagnetization effects.
Principles of Gravity and Magnetic instruments, Plan of conducting gravity and
magnetic surveys, Gravity and Magnetic data reduction, Gravity bases, International
Gravity formula, IGRF corrections. Concept of regional and residual anomalies
and various methods of their separation, Edge Enhancement Techniques
(Derivatives, Continuation, Analytical Signal, Reduced to Pole and Euler
Deconvolution), ambiguity in potential field interpretation, Factors affecting
magnetic anomalies, Application of gravity and magnetics in geodynamic, mineral
exploration and environmental studies. Qualitative interpretation,
Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies due to different geometry
shaped bodies and modeling. 

A2. Electrical and Electromagnetic methods:
Electrical properties of rocks and minerals, concepts and assumptions of
horizontally stratified earth, anisotropy and its effects on electrical fields,
geoelectric and geological sections, D.C Resistivity method. Concept of natural
electric field, various electrode configurations, Profiling and Sounding (VES).
Tpes of Sounding curves, Equivalence and Suppression, Concept of Electrical
Resistivity Tomography (ERT). SP Method:, Origin of SP, application of SP
surveys. Induced Polarization (IP) Method: Origin of IP, Membrane and Electrode
polarization, time and frequency domains of measurement, chargeability, percent
frequency effect and metal factor, Application of IP surveys for mineral
exploration. Electromagnetic methods, Passive and Active source methods,
Diffusion equation, wave equation and damped wave equation used in EM method,
boundary conditions, skin depth, depth of investigation and depth of
penetration, amplitude and phase relations, real and imaginary components,
elliptical polarization, Principles of EM prospecting, various EM methods: Dip
angle, Turam, moving source-receiver methods-horizontal loop (Slingram), AFMAG,
and VLF.. Principles of Time Domain EM: INPUT method. EM Profiling and
sounding, Interpretation of EM anomalies. Principle of EM scale modeling.
Magnetotelluric methods: Origin and characteristics of MT fields,
Instrumentation, Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Modes, Static
Shift. Dimensionality and Directionality analysis. Field Layout and
interpretation of MT data and its applications. Principles of Ground
Penetrating Radar (GPR). 

A3. Seismic Prospecting: Basic principles of
seismic methods, Various factors affecting seismic velocities in rocks,
Reflection, refraction and Energy partitioning at an interface, Geometrical
spreading, Reflection and refraction of wave phenomena in a layered and dipping
media. Seismic absorption and anisotropy, Multi channel seismic (CDP) data
acquisition (2D and 3D), sources of energy, Geophones, geometry of arrays,
different spread geometry, Instrumentation, digital recording. Different types
of multiples, Travel time curves, corrections, Interpretation of data, bright
spot, low velocity layer, Data processing, static and dynamic (NMO and DMO)
corrections, shot-receiver gather, foldage, multiplexing and demultiplexing.
Dix’s equation, Velocities: Interval, Average and RMS, Seismic resolution and
Fresnel Zone, Velocity analysis and Migration techniques, Seismic
Interpretation, Time and Depth Section, Fundamentals of VSP method, High
Resolution Seismic Surveys (HRSS). 

A4. Borehole Geophysics: Objectives of well
logging, concepts of borehole geophysics, borehole conditions, properties of
reservoir rock formations, formation parameters and their
relationships-formation factor, porosity, permeability, formation water
resistivity, water saturation, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon
saturation, residual hydrocarbon saturation; Arhcie’s and Humble’s equations;
principles, instrumentations, operational procedures and interpretations of
various geophysical logs: SP, resistivity and micro resistivity, gamma ray,
neutron, sonic, temperature, caliper and directional logs. Production logging,
overlay and cross-plots of well-log data, determination of formation lithology,
porosity, permeability and oil-water saturation, sub-surface correlation and
mapping, delineation of fractures; application of well-logging in hydrocarbon,
groundwater, coal, metallic and non-metallic mineral exploration. 


Classical Mechanics Inertial and non-inertial frames, Newton’s laws; Pseudo
forces; Central force motion; Two-body collisions, Scattering in laboratory and
centre-of-mass frames; Rigid body dynamics, Moment of inertia, Variational
principle, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms and equations of motion;
Poisson brackets and canonical transformations; Symmetry, Invariance and
conservation laws, Cyclic coordinates; Periodic motion, Small oscillations and
normal modes; Special theory of relativity, Lorentz transformations,
Relativistic kinematics and mass-energy equivalence. 

B2. Thermodynamics and
Statistical Physics Laws of thermodynamics and their significance;
Thermodynamic potentials, Maxwell relations; Chemical potential, Phase
equilibria; Phase space, Micro- and macro- states; Micro canonical, canonical
and grand-canonical ensembles and partition functions; Free Energy and
connection with thermodynamic quantities; First and second order phase
transitions; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, Quantum statistics, Ideal Fermi
and Bose gases; Principle of detailed balance; Blackbody radiation and Planck’s
distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; Random walk and Brownian motion;
Diffusion equation. 

B3. Atomic and Molecular Physics and Characterization of
materials Quantum states of an electron in an atom; Electron spin;
Stern-Gerlach experiment; Spectrum of Hydrogen, Helium and alkali atoms;
Relativistic corrections for energy levels of hydrogen; Hyperfine structure and
isotopic shift; Width of spectral lines; LS and JJ coupling; Zeeman, Paschen
Back and Stark effects; Rotational, vibrational, electronic, and Raman spectra
of diatomic molecules; FrankCondon principle; Thermal and optical properties of
materials, Study of microstructure using SEM, Study of crystal structure using
TEM, Resonance methods: Spin and applied magnetic field, Larmor precession,
relaxation times – spin-spin relaxation, Spin-lattice relaxation, Electron spin
resonance, g factor, Nuclear Magnetic resonance, line width, Motional
narrowing, Hyperfine splitting; Nuclear Gamma Resonance: Principles of
Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Line width, Resonance absorption, Isomer Shift,
Quadrupole splitting. 
 Nuclear and Particle Physics Basic nuclear
properties: size, shape, charge distribution, spin and parity; Binding energy,
Packing fraction, Semi-empirical mass formula; Liquid drop model; Fission and
fusion, Nuclear reactor; Line of stability, Characteristics of the nuclear
forces, Nucleon-nucleon potential; Charge-independence and charge-symmetry of
nuclear forces; Isospin; Deuteron problem; Evidence of shell structure,
Single-particle shell model and, its validity and limitations; Elementary ideas
of alpha, beta and gamma decays and their selection rules; Nuclear reactions,
reaction mechanisms, compound nuclei and direct reactions; Classification of
fundamental forces; Elementary particles (quarks, baryons, mesons, leptons);
Spin and parity assignments, strangeness; Gell Mann-Nishijima formula; C, P and
T invariance and applications of symmetry arguments to particle reactions,
Parity non-conservation in weak interaction; Relativistic kinematics. 

(Descriptive Type) 

Geophysics : Paper-III 


A1. Radiometric and
Airborne Geophysics: Principles of radioactivity, radioactivity decay
processes, units, radioactivity of rocks and minerals, Instruments, Ionization
chamber, G-M counter, Scintillation counter, Gamma ray spectrometer,
Radiometric prospecting for mineral exploration (Direct/Indirect applications),
beach placers, titanium, zirconium and rare-earths, radon studies in seismology
and environmental applications. Airborne geophysical surveys (gravity,
magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric), planning of surveys, flight path
recovery methods. Applications in geological mapping, identification of
structural features and altered zones. 

A2. Marine Geophysics: Salinity,
temperature and density of sea water. Introduction to Sea-floor features:
Physiography, divisions of sea floor, continental shelves, slopes, and abyssal
plains, growth and decline of ocean basins, turbidity currents, occurrence of
mineral deposits and hydrocarbons in offshore. Geophysical surveys and
instrumentation: Gravity, Magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, Sonobuoy
surveys, Instrumentation used in ship borne surveys, towing cable and fish,
data collection and survey procedures, corrections and interpretation of data.
Oceanic magnetic anomalies, VineMathews hypothesis, geomagnetic time scale and
dating sea floor, Oceanic heat flow, ocean ridges, basins, marginal basins,
rift valleys. Seismic surveys, energy sources, Pinger, Boomer, Sparker, Air
gun, Hydrophones and steamer cabling. Data reduction and interpretation. Ocean
Bottom Seismic surveys. Bathymetry, echo sounding, bathymetric charts, sea bed
mapping. Navigation and Position fixing methods. 

A3. Geophysical Signal
Processing: Time Series, Types of signals, sampling theorem, aliasing effect,
Fourier series of periodic waveforms, Fourier transform and its properties,
Discrete Fourier transform and FFT, Hilbert Transform, Convolution and
Deconvolution, Auto and cross correlations, Power spectrum, Delta function,
unit step function. Time domain windows, Z transform and properties, Inverse Z
transform. Poles and zeroes. Principles of digital filters, types of filters:
recursive, non recursive, time invariant, Chebyshev, Butterworth, moving
average, amplitude and phase response of filters, low pass, band pass and high
pass filters. Processing of Random signals. Improvement of signal to noise ratio,
source and geophone arrays as spatial filters. Earth as low pass filter.

Remote Sensing and Geohydrology: Fundamental concepts of remote sensing,
electromagnetic radiation spectrum, Interaction of electromagnetic energy and
its interactions in atmosphere and surface of the earth, elements of
photographic systems, reflectance and emittance, false color composites, remote
sensing platforms, flight planning, geosynchronous and sun synchronous orbits,
sensors, resolution, parallax and vertical exaggeration, relief displacement,
mosaic, aerial photo interpretation and geological application. Fundamentals of
photogrammetry, satellite remote sensing, multi-spectral scanners, thermal
scanners, microwave remote sensing, fundamental of image processing and interpretation
for geological applications. Types of water bearing formations, porosity,
permeability, storage coefficient, specific storage, specific retention,
specific yield, Different types of aquifers, vertical distribution of ground
water, General flow equation; steady and unsteady flow of ground water in
unconfined and confined aquifers. 


B1. Solid State Physics and Basic
Electronics Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal
systems, Space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray
diffraction, Scanning and transmission electron microscopes; Band theory of
solids, conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of
solids, Specific heat: Einstein’s and Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and
ferro; Elements of superconductivity; Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and
applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.
Semiconductor devices and circuits: Intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductors;
Devices and structures (p-n junctions, diodes, transistors, FET, JFET and
MOSFET, homo and hetero junction transistors, thermistors), Device
characteristics, Frequency dependence and applications. Opto-electronic devices
(solar cells, photo detectors, LEDs) Operational amplifiers and their applications.

B2. Laser systems Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation. Coherence,
Light amplification and relation between Einstein A and B coefficients. Rate
equations for three and four level systems. Lasers: Ruby, Nd-YAG, CO2, Dye,
Excimer, Semiconductor. Laser cavity modes, Line shape function and full width
at half maximum (FWHM) for natural broadening, collision broadening, Doppler
broadening; Saturation behavior of broadened transitions, Longitudinal and
transverse modes. Mode selection, ABCD matrices and cavity stability criteria
for confocal resonators. Quality factor, Expression for intensity for modes
oscillating at random and mode-locked in phase. Methods of Q-switching and mode
locking. Optical fiber waveguides, Fiber characteristics. 25  

B3. Digital
electronics, Radar systems, Satellite communications Digital techniques and
applications: Boolean identities, de Morgan’s theorems, Logic gates and truth
tables; Simple logic circuits: registers, counters, comparators and similar circuits).
A/D and D/A converters. Microprocessor: basics and architecture;
Microcontroller basics. Combination and sequential logic circuits, Functional
diagram, Timing diagram of read and write cycle, Data transfer techniques:
serial and parallel. Fundamentals of digital computers. Radar systems, Signal
and data processing, Surveillance radar, Tracking radar, Radar antenna
parameters. Fundamentals of satellite systems, Communication and Orbiting
satellites, Satellite frequency bands, Satellite orbit and inclinations. Earth
station technology. 

B4. Quantum Mechanics Wave-particle duality; Wave functions
in coordinate and momentum representations; Commutators and Heisenberg’s
uncertainty principle; Schrodinger’s wave equation (time-dependent and
timeindependent); Eigenvalue problems: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator,
tunneling through a 1-D barrier; Motion in a central potential; Orbital angular
momentum; Addition of angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Matrix representation;
Dirac’s bra and ket notations; Time-independent perturbation theory and
applications; Variational method; WKB approximation; Time dependent
perturbation theory and Fermi’s Golden Rule; Selection rules; Semi-classical
theory of radiation; Elementary theory of scattering, Phase shifts, Partial waves,
Born approximation; Identical particles, Pauli’s exclusion principle,
Spin-statistics connection; Relativistic quantum mechanics: Klein Gordon and
Dirac equations. 

For the posts of Chemist/Scientist ‘B’(Chemical) 
(Descriptive Type) 
Chemistry : Paper-I (Inorganic Chemistry)

1. Inorganic
solids: Defects, non-stoichiometric compounds and solid solutions, atom and ion
diffusion, solid electrolytes. Synthesis of materials, monoxides of 3d-metals,
higher oxides, complex oxides (corundrum, ReO3, spinel, pervoskites), framework
structures (phosphates, aluminophosphates, silicates, zeolites), nitrides and
fluorides, chalcogenides, intercalation chemistry, semiconductors, molecular

2. Chemistry of coordination compounds: Isomerism, reactivity and
stability: Determination of configuration of cis- and trans- isomers by
chemical methods. Labile and inert complexes, substitution reactions on square
planar complexes, trans effect. Stability constants of coordination compounds
and their importance in inorganic analysis. Structure and bonding: Elementary
Crystal Field Theory: splitting of dn configurations in octahedral, square
planar and tetrahedral fields, crystal field stabilization energy, pairing
energy. Jahn-Teller distortion. Metal-ligand bonding, sigma and pi bonding in
octahedral complexes and their effects on the oxidation states of transition
metals. Orbital and spin magnetic moments, spin only moments and their
correlation with effective magnetic moments, d-d transitions; LS coupling,
spectroscopic ground states, selection rules for electronic spectral
transitions; spectrochemical series of ligands, charge transfer spectra. 

Acid base titrations: Titration curves for strong acid-strong base, weak
acid-strong base and weak base-strong acid titrations, polyprotic acids,
poly-equivalent bases, determining the equivalence point: theory of acidbase
indicators, pH change range of indicator, selection of proper indicator.
Principles used in estimation of mixtures of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 (by acidimetry). 

4. Gravimetric Analysis: General principles: Solubility, solubility product and
common ion effect, effect of temperature on the solubility; Salt hydrolysis,
hydrolysis constant, degree of hydrolysis. Stoichiometry, calculation of
results from gravimetric data. Properties of precipitates. Nucleation and
crystal growth, factors influencing completion of precipitation.
Co-precipitation and postprecipitation, purification and washing of
precipitates. Precipitation from homogeneous solution. A few common gravimetric
estimations: chloride as silver chloride, sulphate as barium sulphate,
aluminium as oxinate and nickel as dimethyl glyoximate. 

5. Redox Titrations:
Standard redox potentials, Nernst equation. Influence of complex formation,
precipitation and change of pH on redox potentials, Normal Hydrogen Electrode
(NHE). Feasibility of a redox titration, redox potential at the equivalence
point, redox indicators. Redox potentials and their applications. Principles
behind Iodometry, permanganometry, dichrometry, difference between iodometry
and iodimetry. Principles of estimation of iron, copper, manganese, chromium by
redox titration. 

6. Complexometric titrations:  Complex formation
reactions, stability of complexes, stepwise formation constants, chelating
agents. EDTA: acidic properties, complexes with metal ions, equilibrium
calculations involving EDTA, conditional formation constants, derivation of
EDTA titration curves, effect of other complexing agents, factors affecting the
shape of titration curves: indicators for EDTA titrations, titration methods
employing EDTA: direct, back and displacement titrations, indirect
determinations, titration of mixtures, selectivity, masking and demasking
agents. Typical applications of EDTA titrations: hardness of water, magnesium
and aluminium in antacids, magnesium, manganese and zinc in a mixture,
titrations involving unidentate ligands: titration of chloride with Hg2+ and
cyanide with Ag+. 

7. Organometallic compounds: 18-electron rule and its
applications to carbonyls and nature of bonding involved therein. Simple
examples of metal-metal bonded compounds and metal clusters. Wilkinson’s

8. Nuclear chemistry: Radioactive decay- General characteristics,
decay kinetics, parent-daughter decay growth relationships, determination of
half-lives. Nuclear stability. Decay theories. Unit of radioactivity.
Preparation of artificial radionuclides by bombardment, radiochemical
separation techniques. Experimental techniques in the assay of radioisotopes,
Geiger-Muller counters. Solid state detectors. 

9. Chemistry of d- and f-block
elements: d-block elements: General comparison of 3d, 4d and 5d elements in
terms of electronic configuration, elemental forms, metallic nature,
atomization energy, oxidation states, redox properties, coordination chemistry,
spectral and magnetic properties. f-block elements: Electronic configuration,
ionization enthalpies, oxidation states, variation in atomic and ionic (3+)
radii, magnetic and spectral properties of lanthanides, separation of lanthanides
(by ion-exchange method). 

Stage-II (Descriptive Type) Chemistry : 

(Physical Chemistry) 

1. Kinetic theory and the gaseous state: Real gases,
Deviation of gases from ideal behaviour; compressibility factor; van der Waals
equation of state and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state.
Critical constants in terms of van der Waals constants. Law of corresponding
states and significance of second virial coefficient. Boyle temperature. 

Solids: Nature of solid state. Band theory of solids: Qualitative idea of band
theory, conducting, semiconducting and insulating properties. Law of constancy
of angles, concept of unit cell, different crystal systems, Bravais lattices,
law of rational indices, Miller indices, symmetry elements in crystals. X-ray
diffraction, Bragg’s law. 

3. Chemical thermodynamics and chemical equilibrium:
Chemical potential in terms of Gibbs energy and other thermodynamic state
functions and its variation with temperature and pressure. Gibbs-Duhem
equation; fugacity of gases and fugacity coefficient. Thermodynamic conditions
for equilibrium, degree of advancement. vant Hoff’s reaction isotherm.
Equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy change. Definitions of KP, KC
and Kx; vant Hoff’s reaction isobar and isochore. Activity and activity
coefficients of electrolytes / ions in solution. Debye-Hückel limiting law. 

Chemical kinetics and catalysis: Second order reactions. Determination of order
of reactions. Parallel and consecutive reactions. Temperature dependence of reaction
rate, energy of activation. Collision Theory and Transition State Theory of
reaction rates. Enthalpy of activation, entropy of activation, effect of
dielectric constant and ionic strength on reaction rate, kinetic isotope
effect. Physisorption and chemisorption, adsorption isotherms, Freundlich and
Langmuir adsorption isotherms, BET equation, surface area determination;
colloids, electrical double layer and colloid stability, electrokinetic
phenomenon. Elementary ideas about soaps and detergents, micelles, emulsions. 

5. Electrochemistry: Types of electrochemical cells, cell reactions, emf and
Nernst equation,
G, H and S of cell reactions. Cell diagrams and IUPAC conventions. Standard cells.
Half-cells / electrodes, types of reversible electrodes. Standard electrode
potential and principles of its determination. Concentration cells.
Determination of
Gº, Kº, Ksp and pH. Basic principles
of pH metric and potentiometric titrations, determination of equivalence point
and pKa values. 

6. Quantum chemistry: Eigenfunctions and eigenvalues.
Uncertainty relation, Expectation value. Hermitian operators. Schrödinger
time-independent equation: nature of the equation, acceptability conditions
imposed on the wave functions and probability interpretation of wave function.
Schrödinger equation for particle   in a one-dimensional box and its
solution. Comparison with free particle eigenfunctions and eigenvalues.
Particle in a 3-D box and concept of degeneracy.

7. Basic principles and
applications of spectroscopy: Electromagnetic radiation, interaction with atoms
and molecules and quantization of different forms of energies. Units of
frequency, wavelength and wavenumber. Condition of resonance and energy of
absorption for various types of spectra; origin of atomic spectra, spectrum of
hydrogen atom. Rotational spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Rigid rotor
model, selection rules, spectrum, characteristic features of spectral lines.
Determination of bond length, effect of isotopic substitution. Vibrational
spectroscopy of diatomic molecules: Simple Harmonic Oscillator model, selection
rules and vibration spectra. Molecular vibrations, factors influencing
vibrational frequencies. Overtones, anharmonicity, normal mode analysis of
polyatomic molecules. Raman Effect: Characteristic features and conditions of
Raman activity with suitable illustrations. Rotational and vibrational Raman

8. Photochemistry: Franck-Condon principle and vibrational structure
of electronic spectra. Bond dissociation and principle of determination of
dissociation energy. Decay of excited states by radiative and nonradiative
paths. Fluorescence and phosphorescence, Jablonski diagram. Laws of
photochemistry: Grotthus-Draper law, Stark-Einstein law of photochemical
equivalence; quantum yield and its measurement for a photochemical process,
actinometry. Photostationary state. Photosensitized reactions. Kinetics of HI
decomposition, H2-Br2 reaction, dimerisation of anthracene. 

(Descriptive Type) 

Chemistry : Paper-III (Analytical and Organic) 

(Analytical Chemistry) 

A1. Errors in quantitative analysis: Accuracy and
precision, sensitivity, specific standard deviation in analysis, classification
of errors and their minimization, significant figures, criteria for rejection
of data, Q-test, t-test, and F-test, control chart, sampling methods, sampling
errors, standard reference materials, statistical data treatment. 

Separation Methods: Chromatographic analysis: Basic principles of
chromatography (partition, adsorption and ion exchange), column chromatography,
plate concept, plate height (HETP), normal phase and reversed phase concept,
thin layer chromatography, frontal analysis, principles of High Performance
Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC), and Ion-exchange
chromatography. Solvent extraction: Classification, principle and efficiency of
the technique, mechanism of extraction, extraction by solvation and chelation,
qualitative and quantitative aspects of solvent extraction, extraction of metal
ions from aqueous solutions. 

A3. Spectroscopic methods of analysis:
Lambert-Beer’s Law and its limitations. UV-Visible Spectroscopy: Basic
principles of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Instrumentation consisting of source,
monochromator, grating and detector, spectrophotometric determinations
(estimation of metal ions from aqueous solutions, determination of composition
of metal complexes using Job’s method of continuous variation and mole ratio
method). Infra-red Spectrometry: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of
source, monochromator and detector) for single and double beam instruments,
sampling techniques. Flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry: Basic
principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator, detector,
choice of flame and burner design), techniques of atomization and sample
introduction, method of background correction, sources of chemical
interferences and methods of removal, techniques for the quantitative
estimation of trace level metal ions. Basic principles and theory of AAS. Three
different modes of AAS – Flame-AAS, VG-AAS, and GF-AAS. Single beam and double
beam AAS. Function of Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) and Electrode Discharge Lamp
(EDL). Different types of detectors used in AAS. Qualitative and quantitative

A4. Thermal methods of analysis: Theory of thermogravimetry (TG),
basic principle of instrumentation, techniques for quantitative analysis of Ca
and Mg compounds.

A5. X-ray methods of Analysis: Introduction, theory of X-ray
generation, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence
methods, instrumentation and applications. Qualitative and quantitative
measurements. Powder diffraction method. 

A6. Inductively coupled plasma
spectroscopy: Theory and principles, plasma generation, utility of peristaltic
pump, sampler–skimmer systems, ion lens, quadrupole mass analyzer, dynode /
solid state detector, different types of interferences- spectroscopic
and non-spectroscopic interferences, isobaric and molecular interferences,

A7. Analysis of geological materials: Analysis of minerals and
ores- estimation of (i) CaCO3, MgCO3 in dolomite (ii) Fe2O3, Al2O3, and TiO2 in
bauxite (iii) MnO and MnO2 in pyrolusite. Analysis of metals and alloys: (i) Cu
and Zn in brass (ii) Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Al and Ni in bronze (iii) Cr, Mn, Ni, and
P in steel (iv) Pb, Sb, Sn in ‘type metal’. Introduction to petroleum:
constituents and petroleum fractionation. Analysis of petroleum products:
specific gravity, viscosity, Doctor test, aniline point, colour determination, cloud
point, pour point. Determination of water, neutralization value (acid and base
numbers), ash content, Determination of lead in petroleum. Types of coal and
coke, composition, preparation of sample for proximate and ultimate analysis,
calorific value by bomb calorimetry. 

PART B (Organic chemistry) 

B1. Unstable,
uncharged intermediates: Structure and reactivity of carbenes and nitrenes and
their rearrangements (Reimer-Tiemann, Hoffman, Curtius, Lossen, and Schimdt,). 

B2. Addition reactions: Addition to C-C multiple bonds: Mechanism of addition
involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals (polymerization
reactions of alkenes and substituted alkenes), Ziegler-Natta catalyst for
polymerization, polyurethane, and conducting polymers; addition to conjugated
systems (Diels-Alder reaction), orientation and reactivity (on simple cis- and
trans- alkenes). Addition to carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds: Addition to C=O
double bond, structure and reactivity, hydration, addition of ROH, RSH, CN-,
bisulphite, amine derivatives, hydride ions. 

B3: Reactions at the carbonyl
group: Cannizzaro, Aldol, Perkin, Claisen ester, benzoin, benzil-benzilic acid
rearrangement, Mannich, Dieckmann, Michael, Strobe, Darzen, Wittig, Doebner,
Knoevenagel, Reformatsky reactions. 

B4. Oxidation and Reduction: Reduction of
C=C, Meerwein-Pondorf reaction, Wolff-Kishner and Birch reduction. Oxidation of
C=C, hydration, hydroxylation, hydroboration, ozonolysis, epoxidation,
Sharpless epoxidation. 

B5. Electrocyclic Reactions: Molecular orbital symmetry,
frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5-hexatriene, allyl system,
FMO approach, pericyclic reactions, Woodward-Hoffman correlation diagram method
and perturbation molecular orbital (PMO) approach for the explanation of
pericyclic reactions under thermal and photochemical conditions. Simple cases
of Norrish type-I and type-II reactions. Conrotatory and disrotatory motions of
(4n) and (4n+2) polyenes with emphasis on [2+2] and [4+2] cycloadditions,
sigmatropic rearrangements- shift of H and carbon moieties, Claisen, Cope,
Sommerlet-Hauser rearrangement. 

B6. Spectroscopic methods of analysis: Infrared
spectroscopy: Characteristic frequencies of organic molecules and
interpretation of spectra. Modes of molecular vibrations, characteristic
stretching frequencies of O-H, N-H, C-H, C-D, C=C, C=N, C=O functions; factors
affecting stretching frequencies. Ultraviolet spectroscopy: Chromophores,
auxochromes. Electronic transitions (
σσ*, n-σ*, ππ* and n-π*), relative positions of λ
max considering conjugative effect,
steric effect, solvent effect, red shift (bathochromic shift), blue shift
(hypsochromic shift), hyperchromic effect, hypochromic effect (typical
examples). Woodward rules. Applications of UV spectroscopy to conjugated
dienes, trienes, unsaturated carbonyl compounds and aromatic compounds. Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry: (Proton and Carbon-13 NMR) Nuclear spin, NMR
active nuclei, principle of proton magnetic resonance, equivalent and
non-equivalent protons. Measurement of spectra, the chemical shift, shielding /
deshielding of protons, upfield and downfield shifts, intensity of NMR signals
and integration factors affecting the chemical shifts: spin-spin coupling to
13C I H-I H first order coupling: some simple I H-I H splitting patterns: the
magnitude of I H- I H coupling constants, diamagnetic anisotropy. Mass
spectrometry: Basic Principles, the mass spectrometer, isotope abundances; the
molecular ion, metastable ions. McLafferty rearrangement.

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